• Rene Laennec – Stethoscope • Alexander Fleming – Penicillin • Friedrich Miescher – RNA • Charles Laveran – Microbes of malaria • William Harvey – Blood circulation • G. A. Gerhad Henson – Bacteria of Leprosy • Edward Jenner – Vaccination • Charles Landersteiner – Rh factor in blood • Eugen stainak – Sex Hormone • Antoine van Leeuwenhoek – Sperm • Barcroft – Spleen function • Edward calvin Kendall – Thyroxin • Henry Turner – Turner’s syndrome • Wilhelm conrad Roentgen – X- Ray’s • David Hubel – Visual system • Roger Guillenin – Neuro Hormones • James Watson and Francis crick – DNA structure • Alec Jeffreys – DNA Fingerprinting • Willem Einthoven – Electrocardiogram • Jonas Salk – Polio vaccine • Robert koch – TB Bacteria • Leeuwenhoek – Bacteria • Eduard Buchner Zymase , the first enzyme • August Roesel Von Rosenhof – Amoeba • Paul winchell – Artificial heart • Karl Lohmann – ATP • Marcello Malpighi – Blood Cappilaries • Paul Morawitz – Blood Caugulation explain • Luc Montagnier – HIV • Bayliss and Starling – Hormones • Camillo Golgi – Golgibodies • Eugene Dubois – Evolution of man • Keith parter – Endoplasmic Reticulum • Robert hooke – Cell • Robert brown Discovered, Nucleus • Weismann & Strasbnrger Discovered Meiosis • T. H. Morgan Discovered Sex – linkage in Drosophila • A. V. Leeuwenhoek Discovered compound microscope • Schleiden and Schwann – Cell Theory • Dmitri Ivonovsky Discovered virus • Robert koch – Cholera Bacteria • Hugo von mohl – Cell division • Walther Flemming – Chromosomes • Albert von kolliker – Mitochondria • Jan Baptist van Helmont – Photosynthesis
Emphysema is a lungs disease.it is develops after many years of continue smoking. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are relate to a group of lung disease that known as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).
Emphysema is a condition which is damage the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung. Alveoli are small, thin-walled air sacs. This is located in the end of the bronchial tubes deep inside the lungs.
A normal lungs is consist of about 300 million alveoli. when you are take a breath in the air and alveoli stretch drawing oxygen in and transporting it to the blood. When you exhale, the alveoli shrink, and carbon dioxide out of the body.
The alveoli and lung tissue are destroyed when the emphysema is develops .The tubes collapse and cause an Obstruction that trap air inside the lungs sometimes are fewer alveoli, less oxygen will be transport into the bloodstream.
Any types of smoke such as cigarette, cigar is a major cause of emphysema. if you are inhel this types smoke, and you will suffer chronic diseases.
●Shortness of breath during physical activity. • Coughing and wheezing. • Long term mucus production. • Fatigue
• Pulmonary Rehabilitation • Surgery and lung transplant • Oxygen therapy
A Deadly tumor is called brain cancer. they grows sharply and often strike or mob healthy areas of the brain.
Tumour is either be benign and malignant.
Malignant is cancerous
Benign brain tumors have not consist cancer cells and are usually slow growing.
Brain tumors are two different types. primary or metastatic.
Primary brain tumors start within the brain.
A metastatic tumor is made when cancer cells situated elsewhere in the body break down away and travel to the brain.
For this reason, metastatic brain tumors are nearly every time malignant, while primary brain tumors may be benign or deadly.
Brain tumors are arranged in classes or categories based on where the tumor is situated , the type of tissue involved .
the tumor is benign or deadly , and other factors. If a tumor is laid down malignant.
The tumor cell is examined by a microscope to determine how malignant they are.
Based on this analysis, tumors are rated, or graded, where level of malignancy from least to most malignant.
Factors that determine the tumor grade include how quickly the cells are growing, how much blood is supplying the cells, the presence of dead cells in the middle of the tumor (necrosis), if the cells are finit to a specific area, and how similar the cancerous cells are not normal cells.
• Blurred vision • Headache • Loss of balance • Seizures • Tingling and stiffness
Anything we hear around us is not is sound but vibration of particles. Vibration is a type of disturbance which propagates by particles of medium.
Sound is not travel but it is a wave that is transferred by particles in the form of vibrations (particles can only transfer the vibrations by one particle to second and 2nd to 3rd and so on by remain their positions).
Without particles, sound has no existence. Sound not travel in space because there are no particles in space. , so we transfer the information in form of signal in space.
Speed of sound in different mediums –
Air – 343m/sec
Water – 1437m/sec
Glass – 4540m/sec
Iron – 5120m/sec
According to this, as the medium density increases sound speed also increases.
Effect of temperature- As temperature increases speed of sound increases.
The normal range of sound to hear anything for human is 20hz to 20000hz.
But minimum range of sound which a human can hear is 12hz and maximum is 28000hz.
The sound created by a volcano eruption in 1883 is in range of 180decibel and it can be heard up to 3000 miles (ca. 4,828 km).
the sound created by the explosion of nuclear bomb is in range of 240 to 280+ decibels.
So, we cannot imagine what will be the loudest sound.
Light energy is a traveling Photon which is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Photon is a bundle of energy.
Speed of light is 3 × 10⁸m/sec. in vacuum.
As dense as the medium the speed of light will decrease.
Nature of light-
Light has dual nature
1- wave nature- we consider the light have wave nature because light has the property of diffraction, refraction, and interference etc.
2-particle nature- light has particle nature because it emits electrons when it strikes on metal surface called Photoelectric effect.
mass of photon is zero.
Formation of light energy -when we provide heat to an object it is start to emit photons.
The number of emitting photons, depending on temperature of the object.
Photon having a special property that they can never exist in stable form. They start to travel since their formation.
Intensity of light inversely proportional to square of source distance.
The sun is a star, a hot ball of glowing gases at the heart of our solar system. It is the largest object and contains approximately 99% of the total solar system mass.
Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit.
The Sun’s outer visible layer is called the photosphere and has a temperature of 6,000°C (11,000°F).
the sun’s visible surface sometimes has dark sunspots, which are areas of intense magnetic activity that can lead to solar explosion.
The Sun’s period of rotation at the surface varies from approximately 25 days at the equator to 36 days at the poles. Deep down, below the convective zone, everything appears to rotate with a period of 27 days
Solar energy is created deep within the core of the Sun. It is here that the temperature (15,000,000° C; 27,000,000° F) and pressure (340 billion times Earth’s air pressure at sea level) is so intense that nuclear reactions take place
The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurorae. Though it is special to us, there are billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy.
Average diameter: 864,000 miles, about 109 times the size of the Earth.
Anything we see around us that have colours are not actually colours but photons travels with different frequencies and our eyes detect that frequencies in form of colours.
How photons travels with different frequencies-
Electrons are revolve around the nucleus in different shells in an atom.
Every particular electron revolve in an particular shell. When photon collide with electrons, the electron absorb the energy of photon.
By absorbing the photon energy, the electron goes to the next energy shell for a short time of period (10^-8 sec) The electron goes to the next energy shell called excited state.
After 10^-8 sec in excited state, the electron come back to it’s original energy shell called ground state. When electron come back to ground state, it release the energy of photon which is absorbed by it. It release photon in a particular frequency range. And the whole process is continuous.
The released photon strike on our eyes. The light receptors in eyes can transmit the message to brain and brain can detect the this in form of colour and make an image of that object so that we can see an object which has colour.
There are more than 10 million colour detected.
Black and white are not colour because black is form when all the light Ray’s or all the photons can be absorbed and white is formed when all the light Ray’s are reflected from the surface.
Anything which is transparent can pass all the light Ray’s through it and would be invisible if 100% light rays can pass through it which strike on it. The range of visible light is 380 – 700nanometer(nm). And all the colours we can see have in the range of visible light.