Galaxy, that have billions of stars and billions billions planets. All these stars and planets held together by gravity and all are rotating even a galaxy can rotate.
Milky way galaxy:- We are living in Milky Way galaxy. All the stars that are visible in the sky are in milky way and our sun is a part of these stars.
There are billions of galaxies in the universe. Every Galaxy have different shape and size. The shape of galaxies are like Spiral galaxy, elliptical galaxy, irregular galaxy.
Aur Galaxy, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy.
Visible galaxies from earth:- Through billion of galaxies, only three galaxies can be seen from earth. One of them is andromeda galaxy, which is 2.2 million light year away and it is the nearest galaxy to us.
According to scientists, clumps of dust and gases joined together to form stars planets and then a galaxy. That’s why most of the stars and planets are made of gases.
The Milky Way is a huge Whirlpool shape galaxy have billions of stars, dust and gases. Even light can take 100000 years to cross it from one end to another.
Some scientists thinks that there is a super massive black hole in the centre of our galaxy and the revolutions of that black hole are not so fast. That’s why milky way is stable.
Our solar system that have Sun, planets, etc. is only a tiny part of Milky Way galaxy and the milky way is a tiny part of the universe.
Xrays were discovered by sir Wilhelm Conrad roentgen in 1895.
He was working on the behavior of cathode rays in his lab and after passing high voltage in the tube.
he observed some faint light on bench and source of the light is barium platinocyanide [BaPt(CN)] which is coated by small piece of paper.
He concluded that some unknown rays originated from tube. Then sir roentgen performed various type of experiments on cathode tube by placing some objects between tube and fluorescent screen and every time when he changed the objects, the brightness of light is different.
then finally he placed his wife(Anna Bertha Ludwig) hand between the screen and tube and He was surprised about the results.
On that day he recorded the first x ray of his wife’s hand. Later he prepared a manuscript on the properties of x rays and on 1901 he awarded by noble prize in physics.
INTRODUCTION OF X – RAYS
X rays are a type of ionizing radiation and a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation.
X rays are short in wavelength and have high frequency.
Wavelength of the x rays – 10 picometers to 10 nanometers.
Frequency of the x rays – 3×1016Hz to 3×1019 Hz
energy – 124 eV to 124 Kev
IONIZATION – it is the process by which an atom or molecule acquires a charge by gaining or losing electron
EXCITATION – it is the process in which an electron jump from lower to higher energy level.
x rays are produced from the x ray tube. It is formed by energy conversion, when a fast moving stream of electron is suddenly strike on target metal (anode) then energy converted into x rays.
X rays are invisible
It travel in straight line
It produce ionization and excitation in the substance through which they pass
X rays are electromagnetic waves and not deflected/influenced by electrical or magnetic field
X rays are heterogenic andpolyenergetic.
It cause secondary and scattered radiation
It travels at speed of light 3 X 108 m/s
It cause biological effect (mutation, carcinoma, cataract)
It is pure energy, no charge, they are neutral
It is shows luminescence
X rays are used in clinical, industry, science etc
Radiology is the medical branch that dealing with radiation to diagnose and treating disease.
Radiologist – radiologist is the doctor who are specialized to diagnose and treating disease with the help of radio- imaging technology.
Radiographer – radiographer are healthcare professionals who perform the procedure of medical imaging with the help of radio-imaging technology
Radio – imaging = making images of the internal body with the help of radiation.
Type of imaging machines
X ray –
in this we use x rays for imaging, x rays are highly penetrating and ionizing radiation.
Use psp, xray film and digital receptor to record image and scanner to read it.
it is a real time image with the help of x ray. Procedure of this is also same as the x ray.
DARK ROOM – heart of the x ray
It is the area where x ray film is processed with the help of chemical.
Ct – scan
known as computed tomography or computed axial tomography. It uses rotating x ray machine and take different x ray image on different angle to produce virtual slice of body.
Mammography – is also called mammogram. This procedure is for Breast imaging with the help of low ionizing radiation to diagnose the breast cancer, tumor or lump.
also known as sonography which is used the high frequency sound waves to diagnose the disease. Basically it is non ionizing radiation which is used to less harmful than x ray and it is also used to diagnose complication of unborn babies.
US DOPPLER – it is used to estimate the blood flow in vessels.
also known as magnetic resonance imaging. which uses strong magnetic field to generate images of the internal body.
dual energy x ray absorptiometry, it is use to measure the bone density with the help of x ray imaging.
NUCLEAR MEDICINE –
SPECT – single positron emission computed tomography is used the gamma camera
PET – Positron emission tomography. It uses radioactive material, which act as tracer and PET machined scanned it and shows the activity within the body at cellular level.
THIS POST IS WRITTEN BY AMBER AND WE ARE HAPPY TO POST HER ARTICLE ON PENSER
Hi there, my name is Amber from diosraw.com and today I am guest posting on the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom is a state consisting of the historic countries of England, Wales and Scotland, as well as Northern Ireland. It is recognised and known for the home of both modern parliamentary democracy and the Industrial Revolution.
Two world wars and the end of empirical rule diminished its role in the 20th century, and the 2016 referendum vote to leave the European Union has raised significant questions and doubts about the country’s global role.
Nonetheless, the United Kingdom remains an economic and military power with political and cultural influence around the world.
The British descend from invaders and migrants, including Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, and Normans. In the 1950s and 1960s, people from former colonies in the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia came to the United Kingdom to work.
Sports and literature are among the United Kingdom’s cultural claims to fame. Soccer, rugby, cricket, boxing, and golf were all invented in Britain. And the U.K. has many born great writers; William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and J.K. Rowling, the writer of the Harry Potter books.
Around 5,000 years ago, the middle of the United Kingdom was covered with thick forests. Thousands of years ago, these woodlands were cleared by ancient farmers, and today only about 10 percent of the land left is forest.
The United Kingdom’s complex geology gives rise to a wide diversity of landscapes and a range of habitats for its animal and plant life.
Great Britain’s rugged mountains, like the Scottish Highlands, offer habitat that is relatively untouched by humans. The country’s 7,700 miles (12,429 kilometers) of shoreline, ranging from tall cliffs to beaches to marshes, also provide homes for wildlife such as seabirds and seals.
Britain’s system of government has evolved over many centuries. Kings once ruled with advice from a council of religious leaders and nobles. That council eventually expanded into the Parliament, which now passes all the country’s laws. Today, the monarch (which can be a king or queen) has no real power and is a cultural figurehead.
The UK has been a leading trading nation for more than 500 years. In the 19th century, British industry and the industrial revolution helped make the country the most powerful nation in the world. It is still one of the strongest economies in the world.
The first Britons (United Kingdom residents) were the Picts, who came about 10,000 years ago. In the eighth century B.C., the Celts arrived from Europe and pushed the Picts north into Scotland. In A.D. 43, the Romans invaded and ruled over the land for nearly 400 years. They built many new infrastructures including roads, bathhouses, sewers, and large villas.
By the sixth century A.D., German peoples known as Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were moving into Britain. The Angles gave their name to England, and English people became known as the Anglo-Saxons. From the 900s to the 1400s, England was ruled over by Viking, Danish, and Norman invaders.
In 1485 the Welsh noble Henry Tudor claimed the English crown and became Henry VII, the first of five Tudor monarchs. Several important lines of kings and queens followed after.
By the 1800s, Britain was one of the most powerful nations in the world. Trade generated immense wealth, and the country built a huge overseas empire. But the early 20th century was a time of setbacks and chaos for Britain. Drained by World War I and II, Britain could no longer afford its empire, and most of its colonies became independent.
The UK has beautiful places to explore and rich history however it’s positioning in the world currently is unknown and in peril.
Thank you for reading, I hope you learnt something new today.