HAPPY NEW YEAR 2021

Wish you a very happy new year to my all viewers

You are like our family and we hope that you all are well and may this year brings you lots of happiness and success.

EVERY MOMENT IS A FRESH BEGINING

– T S ELIOT

Yes, every year, every month, every week, every day and every moment brings you a way to achieve your goal. So this year forgot your failure and defeat your fear and fall in a love with success.

PENSERSTUDYPOINT.COM

Mail – contact@penserstudypoint.com

Thank you

GALAXY

Post by – penserstudypoint.com

Galaxy, that have billions of stars and billions billions planets.
All these stars and planets held together by gravity and all are rotating even a galaxy can rotate.

Milky way galaxy:- We are living in Milky Way galaxy. All the stars that are visible in the sky are in milky way and our sun is a part of these stars.

There are billions of galaxies in the universe. Every Galaxy have different shape and size.
The shape of galaxies are like Spiral galaxy, elliptical galaxy, irregular galaxy.

Aur Galaxy, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy.

Visible galaxies from earth:- Through billion of galaxies, only three galaxies can be seen from earth. One of them is andromeda galaxy, which is 2.2 million light year away and it is the nearest galaxy to us.

According to scientists, clumps of dust and gases joined together to form stars planets and then a galaxy. That’s why most of the stars and planets are made of gases.

The Milky Way is a huge Whirlpool shape galaxy have billions of stars, dust and gases. Even light can take 100000 years to cross it from one end to another.

Some scientists thinks that there is a super massive black hole in the centre of our galaxy and the revolutions of that black hole are not so fast. That’s why milky way is stable.

Our solar system that have Sun, planets, etc. is only a tiny part of Milky Way galaxy and the milky way is a tiny part of the universe.

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X – RAYS

ARTICLE BY – ASHUTOSH

MODERATED BY SONIA KALIRAMAN

DISCOVERY OF X RAYS

Xrays were discovered by sir Wilhelm Conrad roentgen in 1895.

He was working on the behavior of cathode rays in his lab and after passing high voltage in the tube.

 he observed some faint light on bench and source of the light is barium platinocyanide [BaPt(CN)] which is coated by small piece of paper.

 He concluded that some unknown rays originated from tube. Then sir roentgen performed various type of experiments on cathode tube by placing some objects between tube and fluorescent screen and every time when he changed the objects, the brightness of light is different.

then finally he placed his wife(Anna Bertha Ludwig) hand between the screen and tube and He was surprised about the results.

On that day he recorded the first x ray of his wife’s hand. Later he prepared a manuscript on the properties of x rays and on 1901 he awarded by noble prize in physics.

INTRODUCTION OF X – RAYS

X rays are a type of ionizing radiation and a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation.

X rays are short in wavelength and have high frequency.

  • Wavelength of the x rays – 10 picometers to 10 nanometers.
  • Frequency of the x rays – 3×1016Hz to 3×1019 Hz
  • energy – 124 eV to 124 Kev

IONIZATION – it is the process by which an atom or molecule acquires a charge by gaining or losing electron

EXCITATION – it is the process in which an electron jump from lower to higher energy level.

PRODUCTION

x rays are produced from the  x ray tube. It is formed by energy conversion, when a fast moving stream of electron is suddenly strike on target metal (anode) then energy converted into x rays.

PROPERTIES

  • X rays are invisible
  • It travel in straight line
  • It produce ionization and excitation in the substance through which they pass
  • X rays are electromagnetic waves and not deflected/influenced by electrical or magnetic field
  • X rays are heterogenic and polyenergetic.
  • It cause secondary and scattered radiation
  • It travels at speed of light 3 X 108 m/s
  • It cause biological effect (mutation, carcinoma, cataract)
  • It is pure energy, no charge, they are neutral
  • It is shows luminescence
  • X rays are used in clinical, industry, science etc
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VOLCANO (PART-1)

ARTICLE BY – PENSER

Volcano is an eruption in the crust of large mass objects like planets.

When hot Lava gases dust and ashes escape out of surfaces (like earth’s surface) called volcanic eruption.

When tectonic plates diverges or converges, the chance of finding a volcano at that place are very high.


Mostly gases that are present in volcanoes are CO2 and Sulphur.

when Magma escape out from the surface called Lava.

There are different type of volcanoes such that Cinder cones volcanoes, Composite volcanoes, Shield volcanoes and lava domes volcanoes.

There are approximately 1500 active volcanoes on earth where Kilaula volcano is most active.

Mauna loa is the largest volcano on earth with a height of more than 9 kilometres and Cuexcomate is the smallest volcano only 13 meters tall.


Krakatao volcano erupt in 1883 and cause loudest sound which can be heard from 3000 miles away.

The danger area that a volcano cover is about 20 miles in radius.
Volcano can cause floods tsunamis and earthquakes.

The deadliest volcano eruption was occurred in Indonesia that cause thousand of lives lost.

INTRODUCTION OF RADIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

ARTICLE BY – ASHUTOSH

MODERATED BY – SONIA KALIRAMAN

RADIOLOGY

Radiology is the medical branch that dealing with radiation to diagnose and treating disease.

Radiologist – radiologist is the doctor who are specialized to diagnose and treating disease with the help of radio- imaging technology.

Radiographer – radiographer are healthcare professionals who perform the procedure of medical imaging with the help of radio-imaging technology

Radio – imaging = making images of the internal body with the help of radiation.

Type of imaging machines

  • X ray
  • Ct scan
  • Mammography
  • Ultrasound
  • Mri
  • Dexa
  • NUCLEAR MEDICINE

Brief introduction

X ray

in this we use x rays for imaging, x rays are highly penetrating and ionizing radiation.

Use psp, xray film and digital receptor to record image and scanner to read it.

Fluoroscopy

it is a real time image with the help of x ray. Procedure of this is also same as the x ray.

DARK ROOM – heart of the x ray

It is the area where x ray film is processed with the help of chemical.

Ct – scan

known as computed tomography or computed axial tomography. It uses rotating x ray machine and take different x ray image on different angle to produce virtual slice of body.

Mammography – is also called mammogram. This procedure is for Breast imaging with the help of low ionizing radiation to diagnose the breast cancer, tumor or lump.

Ultrasound

also known as sonography which is used the high frequency sound waves to diagnose the disease. Basically it is non ionizing radiation which is used to less harmful than x ray and it is also used to diagnose complication of unborn babies.

US DOPPLER – it is used to estimate the blood flow in vessels.

MRI –

also known as magnetic resonance imaging. which uses strong magnetic field to generate images of the internal body.

DEXA-

dual energy x ray absorptiometry, it is use to measure the bone density with the help of x ray imaging.

NUCLEAR MEDICINE  –

SPECT – single positron emission computed tomography is used the gamma camera 

PET – Positron emission tomography. It uses radioactive material, which act as tracer and PET machined scanned it and shows the activity within the body at cellular level.

TO BE CONTINUE…

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ECOSYSTEM

post by penserstudypoint.com

view full article – penser

Ecosystem is a group that have living organism and all the lives interact with each other in any way in any specific environment.

Concept of ecosystem:-

The concept of ecosystem was firstly used by British ecologist Arthur Tansley.

Types of ecosystem:- Ecosystem have two types
1:-Terrestrial ecosystem
2:-Aquatic ecosystem

Terrestrial is land based ecosystem while Aquatic ecosystem is water based.

Structure of ecosystem:-

There are two types of structures of ecosystem

1:- Biotic ecosystem

2:- Abiotic ecosystem

Biotic ecosystem contain living organism while Abiotic ecosystem contain non living things like air, water.

Producers in ecosystem:-

Producers are like plants that use photosynthesis by using sunlight, water, air and than convert these energies into complex energies like proteins, starch.

Consumers in ecosystem:-

Consumers are those who can eat primary producers of their life. Herbivores are called primary consumers while carnivores are called secondary consumers.

Decomposers in ecosystem:-

Decomposers decompose the organic materials. They decompose dead bodies of animals, dead plants, etc. Decomposers have very high importance in ecosystem.

Energy flow in ecosystem:-

This is one directional energy flow. This energy passes from one trophic level to the next trophic level.

Food chain:-

the chain start from producers and ending with decomposers.
For example- Goat eat grass and lion eats goat and when lion dies it will be eaten by micro organism that are decomposers.

Food web

network of food chain is known as food web,

natural interconnection of food chains.

Ecological pyramid:-

It is a graphical representation that show the order that based on who eats whom, different trophic levels and represent flow of energy

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THE UNITED KINGDOM

A Brief Overview Of The UK ( The United Kingdom)

THIS POST IS WRITTEN BY AMBER AND WE ARE HAPPY TO POST HER ARTICLE ON PENSER

Hi there, my name is Amber from diosraw.com and today I am guest posting on the United Kingdom.

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The United Kingdom is a state consisting of the historic countries of England, Wales and Scotland, as well as Northern Ireland. It is recognised and known for the home of both modern parliamentary democracy and the Industrial Revolution.

Two world wars and the end of empirical rule diminished its role in the 20th century, and the 2016 referendum vote to leave the European Union has raised significant questions and doubts about the country’s global role.

Nonetheless, the United Kingdom remains an economic and military power with political and cultural influence around the world.

HISTORY

The British descend from invaders and migrants, including Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, and Normans. In the 1950s and 1960s, people from former colonies in the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia came to the United Kingdom to work.

Sports and literature are among the United Kingdom’s cultural claims to fame. Soccer, rugby, cricket, boxing, and golf were all invented in Britain. And the U.K. has many born great writers; William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and J.K. Rowling, the writer of the Harry Potter books.

NATURE

Around 5,000 years ago, the middle of the United Kingdom was covered with thick forests. Thousands of years ago, these woodlands were cleared by ancient farmers, and today only about 10 percent of the land left is forest.

The United Kingdom’s complex geology gives rise to a wide diversity of landscapes and a range of habitats for its animal and plant life. 

Great Britain’s rugged mountains, like the Scottish Highlands, offer habitat that is relatively untouched by humans. The country’s 7,700 miles (12,429 kilometers) of shoreline, ranging from tall cliffs to beaches to marshes, also provide homes for wildlife such as seabirds and seals.

More History 

Britain’s system of government has evolved over many centuries. Kings once ruled with advice from a council of religious leaders and nobles. That council eventually expanded into the Parliament, which now passes all the country’s laws. Today, the monarch (which can be a king or queen) has no real power and is a cultural figurehead.

The UK  has been a leading trading nation for more than 500 years. In the 19th century, British industry and the industrial revolution helped make the country the most powerful nation in the world. It is still one of the strongest economies in the world.

The first Britons (United Kingdom residents) were the Picts, who came about 10,000 years ago. In the eighth century B.C., the Celts arrived from Europe and pushed the Picts north into Scotland. In A.D. 43, the Romans invaded and ruled over the land for nearly 400 years. They built many new infrastructures including roads, bathhouses, sewers, and large villas.

By the sixth century A.D., German peoples known as Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were moving into Britain. The Angles gave their name to England, and English people became known as the Anglo-Saxons. From the 900s to the 1400s, England was ruled over by Viking, Danish, and Norman invaders.

In 1485 the Welsh noble Henry Tudor claimed the English crown and became Henry VII, the first of five Tudor monarchs. Several important lines of kings and queens followed after.

By the 1800s, Britain was one of the most powerful nations in the world. Trade generated immense wealth, and the country built a huge overseas empire. But the early 20th century was a time of setbacks and chaos for Britain. Drained by World War I and II, Britain could no longer afford its empire, and most of its colonies became independent.

The UK has beautiful places to explore and rich history however it’s positioning in the world currently is unknown and in peril.

Thank you for reading, I hope you learnt something new today.

Best wishes,
Amber

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