POLLUTION (PART-1)

Pollution is defined as an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for all times

POLLUTANTS *Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment.

*As an example , smoke from industries and automobiles, chemicals from factories, radioactive substances from nuclear plants, sewage of homes and discarded house hold articles are the common pollutants.



:Classifications

(1) consistent with the shape during which they persist after release into the environment.

*Primary pollutants: These continue the shape during which they’re added to the environment e.g. DDT, plastic. • Secondary Pollutants: These are formed by interaction among the first pollutants.

*For instance , peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is formed by the interaction of oxide s and hydrocarbons.

(2) consistent with their existence in nature.

* Quantitative Pollutants: These occur in nature and be come pollutant when their concentration reaches beyond a intensity . Eg, CO2 , nitrogen oxide.

* Qualitative Pollutants: These don’t occur in nature and are man-made. E.g. fungicides, herbicides, DDT etc.

(3)consistent with their nature of disposal.

*Biodegradable Pollutants: Waste products, which are degraded by microbial action. E.g. sewage.

* Non-biodegradable Pollutants: Pollutants, which are not decomposed by microbial action. E.g. plastics, glass, DDT, salts of heavy metals, radioactive substances etc..)

(4)consistent with origin

*Natural

*Anthropogenic

*Causes of pollution

*Uncontrolled growth in human population

*Rapid industrialization

*Urbanization

* Uncontrolled exploitation of nature.

* Forest fires, radioactivity, volcanic eruptions, strong winds etc.,Pollution is defined as an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for all times

POLLUTANTS *Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment.

*As an example , smoke from industries and automobiles, chemicals from factories, radioactive substances from nuclear plants, sewage of homes and discarded house hold articles are the common pollutants.



:Classifications

(1) consistent with the shape during which they persist after release into the environment.

*Primary pollutants: These continue the shape during which they’re added to the environment e.g. DDT, plastic. • Secondary Pollutants: These are formed by interaction among the first pollutants.

*For instance , peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is formed by the interaction of oxide s and hydrocarbons.

(2) consistent with their existence in nature.

* Quantitative Pollutants: These occur in nature and be come pollutant when their concentration reaches beyond a intensity . Eg, CO2 , nitrogen oxide.

* Qualitative Pollutants: These don’t occur in nature and are man-made. E.g. fungicides, herbicides, DDT etc.

(3)consistent with their nature of disposal.

*Biodegradable Pollutants: Waste products, which are degraded by microbial action. E.g. sewage.

* Non-biodegradable Pollutants: Pollutants, which are not decomposed by microbial action. E.g. plastics, glass, DDT, salts of heavy metals, radioactive substances etc..)

(4)consistent with origin

*Natural

*Anthropogenic

*Causes of pollution

*Uncontrolled growth in human population

*Rapid industrialization

*Urbanization

* Uncontrolled exploitation of nature.

* Forest fires, radioactivity, volcanic eruptions, strong winds etc.

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DEFORESTATION

post by – penserstudypoint.com

Indiscriminate felling of trees as a results of urbanization, industrial enterprise, mining operations, and use of wood for domestic and alternative functions, have caused significant depletion of forests.

Causes
1) Shifting cultivation
*During this follow a patch of land is cleared, vegetation is burned and therefore the ash is mixed with the soil therefore adding nutrients to the soil.

*This patch of land is employed for raising crops for 2 to a few years, and therefore the yield is modest.

*Then this space is abandoned and is left to recover its fertility, and therefore the same follow is recurrent elsewhere on a recent piece of land.



*All that’s needed for this technique of cultivation may be a set of easy tools, not high level of mechanisation.

2) Development project
*The human population have hyperbolic significantly, thus with their necessities.

*Development comes just like the electricity comes, massive dams and reservoirs, birth down of railway lines and roads aren’t solely extraordinarily helpful, however they’re conjointly coupled with many environmental issues.

*Several of those comes need Brobdingnagian deforestation.

3) Fuel necessities
*The increasing demand for fuel with ever growing population will increase larger pressure on the forests, which ends up in hyperbolic intensity of deforestation.

4) Stuff necessities
*Wood is employed as a stuff by numerous industries for creating paper, plywood, furniture, match sticks, boxes, crates, packing cases, etc.


*Industries conjointly get their raw materials from plants like medication, scents and perfumes, resin, gums, waxes, turpentine, latex and rubber, tannis, alkaloids, bees wax.

*This exerted tremendous pressure on forest system and their unrestricted exploitation for numerous alternative raw materials is that the main reason for degradation of the forest system.

5) Alternative Causes
*Deforestation conjointly results from overgrazing, agricul ture, mining, urbanization, flood, fire, pest, diseases, defence and communication activites.


How it affects?
*Closed forests (based on cover level) have being di minished because of deforestation resulting in increase in degraded forests.

*Forests recycle wetness from soil into their immediate atmosphere by transpiration wherever it once more precipitates as rain.

*Deforestation leads to an instantaneous lowering of spring water level and in long reduction of precipitation.

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*Because of deforestation, this natural recycle cycle is broken and water is lost through speedy flee.

*A lot of of the mining activity in Republic of India is being disbursed in forest regions. the apparent result’s deforestation and eating away.

*Underground mining has conjointly considerably uncovered forests, as timber is employed for supporting the roofs of mine galleries.

*An oversized range of abandoned mines square measure lying in unhealthy form and square measure below in depth valley erosion resulting in degradation of the environment.

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MAMMALS

post by penserstudypoint.com

There are about 5,000 species of living mammals. They are divided into three subclasses, and about twenty-six orders. Mammals display a remarkable array of adaptations that enable them to inhabit a wide range of habitats.


They range in size from the minute bumblebee bat, which measures a mere three centimetres in length, to the magnificent blue whale, which can measure 33 metres from head to tail. The main orders of living mammals are given above.

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Of all the classes of animal life, mammals are considered the most advanced, and are probably the most popular class. They are the only animals that possess true hair, and have the capacity to produce milk.

Their superior brains, warm blood, and the way they care for their young have given them a great advantage over other animals in the struggle for survival.

The overall success of mammals as a group is due to their ability to adapt to virtually every environ ment on Earth. Although most species live on land, some have taken to the sea and air as well as underground.

Is it any won der that many scientists con sider mammals as the dominant animals of the world?

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