ELECTICITY

All atoms contain charged protons and charged electrons. Electricity is a flow of charged electrons from one place to a different. Once electrons area unit transferred between substances, it will cause a buildup of charge in one place and electric charge in another generally with powerful results.

Lightning
Inside storm clouds small particies of ice rub against one another and electrons area unit transferred between particles. This ends up in a buildup of charge at all-time low of the cloud. If this charge becomes massive enough, it will jump between clouds or a cloud and therefore the ground during a large bolt of electricity, referred to as lightning.

Static electricity
When electrical charge builds up in one place it’s referred to as electricity. If you rub your hair on a balloon, electrons area unit transferred from your hair to the balloon. This offers your hair a electric charge and therefore the balloon a charge. Particles with opposite charge attracted towards one another therefore your hair can attracts the balloon.

Current electricity
The electricity that powers our homes is thought as dynamic electricity. It flows from power plants to our homes and offices on long electrical cables that area unit made up of conducting materials. These cables supported by towers that protected against this by ceramic insulators.

Using electricity
The electricity we have a tendency to use around our homes and to power our gadgets is created in many ways that. It will be generated in large power plants situated remote. On a smaller scale, things like flashlights and cell phones will be supercharged by batteries that offer electricity whenever we would like.

Storing electricity
Batteries store energy in chemicals. once a battery is place into a circuit it makes a current flow round the circuit. Batteries terribly helpful for tiny electrical devices that don’t would like a lot of power, or for devices that need to be transportable.

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ACID AND BASE

Acids and bases
Acids and bases are chemical opposites: acids produce charged hydrogen ions and bases produce charged hydroxide ions. Several acids and bases is combined to supply helpful substances, like salts and soaps.

Acids
Some powerful acids are terribly corrosive, which implies they will destroy, or “eat through,” alternative substances. Weaker acids, like juice and vinegar, have a robust, sour taste. These are typically use inflavor food and may even be found in several family cleansing merchandise.

Bases and alkalis
Strong bases are as dangerous as robust acids, though a base that destroys alternative substances is sometimes called caustic instead of corrosive. Hydrated oxide (caustic soda) will eat through some metals. Bicarbonate, or sodium hydrogen carbonate, could be a weak base, typically utilized in change of state. Some bases ar soluble and are referred to as alkalis.



Mixing acids and bases
When bound acids and bases ar mixed, they will react to supply water and a salt. Soap is formed once a robust base is additional to a carboxylic acid (a building block of fats found in our bodies and food), breaking it all the way down to kind a tough or soft soap (depending on the base).



Measuring acids and bases
The strength of acids and bases is measured exploitation the hydrogen ion concentration (power of hydrogen) scale. It ranges from zero (strong acid) to fourteen (strong base). Pure water is seven on the pH scale, that is neutral- neither acid nor base. The hydrogen ion concentration of a substance is measured employing a hydrogen ion concentration indicator like paper. the colour of the indicator changes in line with the hydrogen ion concentration of the substance.