If Earth and Venus can be considered fraternal twin planets, Uranus and Neptune are more like identical twins. Both are denizens of the deep outer solar system, with Neptune, out at 30 astronomical units, taking approximately 165 Earth years to orbit the Sun once. Both ice giants are about the same size and mass (Neptune is slightly heavier, at 17 Earth masses), and both have a similar composition: about 80 percent hydrogen, 19 percent helium, and trace amounts of methane and other hydrocarbons.

As it does on Uranus, methane gives Neptune its beautiful azure color. Neptune, like Uranus, is another ice giant world with a modest number of icy satellites (13) and a system of dark icy rings. From telescopic measurements, data from the 1989 Voyager 2 flyby, and laboratory studies, astronomers have deduced that Neptune’s gaseous atmosphere extends about 10 to 20 percent of the way to the center of the planet.
Then, as pressure and temperature increase, higher concentrations of water, ammonia, and methane form a hot liquid mantle. Astronomers refer to this zone as “icy” because the molecules there are thought to have originally come from the mostly icy outer Solar Nebula planetesimals that were part of Neptune’s original building blocks. Some astronomers even think of this zone as a water-ammonia ocean, and computer simulations suggest that a rain of diamonds fall through this ocean to the planet’s Earthlike core of rock, iron, and nickel.

It’s puzzling to astronomers that the ice giants reside in the far outer solar system, because there may not have been enough solar nebula material at those distances to form them.
One explanation may be that they formed closer to the Sun and slowly migrated out, perhaps gravitationally nudged by Jupiter and/or Saturn. We think of the solar system today as stable, running like clockwork, but when the planets were forming, it was much more violent and chaotic.



If you judge people, you have no time to love them.

Mother Teresa



Water is that the solely substance on Earth that’s unremarkably found all told 3 states of matter, as solid ice, liquid water, and aerosolized water vapour. A water molecule is straightforward, with 2 atoms of hydrogen and one in every of oxygen. However it’s maybe the foremost vital substance on Earth. Most of our planet’s surface is roofed with water and it makes up sixty percent of our own bodies.

Water while not dirt or germs is important permanently health. To create it clean, dirty water is tried and true a series of filters. These take away smaller and smaller things, from floating twigs and leaves, to bits of sand and grit, and at last a number of the little germs. Adding chemicals like element then kills any remaining germs.

Cooled right down to 39.2°F (4°C), water gets smaller or contracts, and then it’s heavier (more dense). Below 39.2°F (4°C), it starts to induce larger or expand. Therefore once it freezes as ice at 32°F (0°C), it’s lighter than the liquid water around it—and floats.

Water desires heat to “dry”- that’s, flip from liquid into gas. This can be why puddles dry up quicker on hot, sunny days. Our sweat is generally water. It dries by drawing heat from the body.

CLOUDS AND water vapour
The gas kind of water, called water vapour, is invisible. It will frame the maximum amount as 0.04 % . we are able to see it once this vapor cools and turns back to little droplets of liquid water, therefore tiny and light-weight that they float-what we tend to decision clouds

Only tierce of planet Earth is roofed with land, rocks, and soil. The remainder is water. Almost 97.5 % of this can be salty water, in seas and oceans. But a pair of 5 % is water in rivers, lakes, soil, and rocks and fewer than 0.01 % of this water is well offered to use, in lakes and rivers.