The fruit may be defined as a fertilized and developed ovary. Fruits and seeds develop from flowers after completion of two processes namely pollination and fertilization. After fertilization, the ovary develops into fruit.
The ovary wall develops into the fruit wall called pericarp and the ovules inside the ovary develop into seeds. The branch of horticulture that deals with study of fruits and their cultivation is called pomology.
Fertilization acts as a stimulus for the development of ovary into fruit. But there are several cases where ovary may develop into fruit without fertilization. This phenomenon of development of fruit without fertilization is called parthenocarpy and such fruits are called parthenocarpic fruits.
These fruits are necessarily seedless. eg. Banana, grapes, pineapple and guava etc. The fruits are classified into two main categories, – true and false fruits.
(i) True Fruit: The fruit, which is derived from ovary of a flower and not associated with any noncarpellary part, is known as true fruit. eg. Tomato, Brinjal, Pea, Mango, Banana etc.,
(ii) False Fruit: (Pseudocarp) The fruit derived from the ovary along with other accessory floral parts is called a false fruit. eg. Apple (edible part of the fruit is the fleshy receptacle).