Short series – 6 The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System: The primary organs are located in two areas: the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The upper tract contains the nose and nasal cavity (also known as the nasal passage), the pharynx (or throat), and the larynx (or voice box).

The lower respiratory tract contains the trachea (windpipe), the bronchi, the alveoli, and the lungs. This system’s major responsibility is to control and regulate the breathing process, which involves moving air into and out of the lungs.


Short series – 5 The Nervous System

The Nervous System: The primary organs of the nervous system are the brain and spinal cord. Through the nervous system’s two divisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), stimuli and other information is processed into the form of reaction and activity.

In addition to the endocrine system, the nervous system is known as one of the body’s key communication centers. This communication is done through nerve impulses that travel through the body’s nerve fiber system.


Short series – 4 The Muscular System

The Muscular System: Three types of muscles make up this system: the skeletal muscle, which helps the body to move; the smooth muscle, which is associated with the internal muscles; and cardiac, which works to help the heart to function.

The movement of each of these muscles is determined by direction they receive from different areas of the body. Specifically, the autonomic nervous system controls the smooth and cardiac muscles and the central nervous system controls the central nervous system.


Short series – 3 The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System: The primary organs of this system are the bone marrow and thymus, while the secondary organs are the spleen, tonsils, adenoid, Peyer’s patches, and appendix.

The lymphatic system’s job is to protect the body against toxins and other potentially harmful substances that can cause illness and disease. While not an organ, one of this system’s most important components are lymphocytes. These specialized cells detect organisms that might be harmful to the body and then prompt an immune response to drive them out of the body.

Short series – 2 The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System: The primary organs of this system (more commonly called glands in the case of the endocrine system) are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenal, pancreas, and sex glands.

The endocrine system is one of the body’s two communication hubs, the other being the nervous system. In this system, the communication is carried out through hormones, which are chemicals that travel through the bloodstream that prompt stimulation and inhibition of nerve impulses.


Short series – 1 Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a formal process of interaction between two parties, each party usually con sisting of one person but with the possibility that there may be two or more people in each party, for the purpose of amelioration of distress in one of the two parties relative to any or all of the following disability or malfunction: cognitive functioning (disorders of thinking), affective functions (suffering or emotional discomforts), or behavioral functions (inadequacy of behavior), with the therapist having some theory of personality’s origins, development, maintenance and change along with some method of treatment logically related to the theory and professional and legal approval to act as a therapist.



Organisations are made of people. Without people, there can be no organisation. Where people are involved, some learning always takes place. The learning may be good or bad, but it happens all the same. In other words, organisations can and do learn, since their people can and do learn. This ability of organisations takes the shape of strategic and competitive advantage, when you begin to consider that we compete in a world full of knowledge.

Not just that, there is so much of knowledge getting added each day that it is almost impossible to compete on any other basis. For sure, financial prudence and soundness helps, but that is useful only if you can compete in the first place. It therefore makes eminent sense for organisations to create an environment where lots and lots of people learn lots and lots of new things all the time. Yes, companies do recognise this, but they do mighty little about actually getting down to making it happen in big and continuous doses.

There is another completely different advantage of competing on learning. Organisational knowledge is the sum of many parts-the sum of many minds working together. This simply cannot be replicated by the competition. Why?

The reason is quite simple. It is not possible to replicate the same set of circumstances and the same set of people existing in one company into another company. So, even if a few people leave and join forces with the competition, all is not lost. As a result, when discussions centre around return on investment, there is the invariable war cry for cost cutting. Such debates are common in corporate settings, and the outcome is invariably one sided. Since the majority of costs relate to people, let’s seize a hatchet and cut the headcount. Few, far too few, senior managers think about the incredible damage they are doing by taking such an approach. No one pauses to ponder over the loss of knowledge, human capital, and loyalty.

This is where the story of the titmouse becomes relevant. Alan Wilson, a zoologist and biochemist at the University of California at Berkeley, has been studyjng how animals learn. His research has established that there is a certain behaviour that enables primates and songbirds to share the position at the top of the table of evolved species.

Wilson’s theory for accelerated anatomical evolution describes three characteristics that enable learning:

Innovation: As individuals and as a community, they have the ability to invent new behaviour. They are capable of developing skills that enable them to exploit and take advantage of their environment in newer and better ways.

Social propagation: Skills are propagated and transferred in a proper and established way to the entire community through direct communication, not genetically.

Mobility: Individuals of the species have the ability to move around. They use this ability to a tremendous extent. They flock and move in herds, instead of keeping to themselves like hermits.

To determine whether his theory would hold water, Wilson researched studies done on the British titmouse, a small songbird commonly found in Britain. The study is extremely revealing and goes thus: During the early part of this century, milk was distributed to the doors of British country houses in bottles without tops. The cream would settle at the top of the bottles. Two species of birds the titmice and red robin, learned to siphon the cream from the bottles and get an enriched diet. This diet was obviously richer than other food the birds had. The digestive systems of these two species underwent a metabolism to cope with the extra nutrition. By the early fifties, the entire titmouse population had learnt how to pierce the aluminium caps and get to the cream. On the other hand, the red robins simply did not learn how to pierce the caps. There was a stray robin here and a stray robin there that had learned how to pierce the cap, but the species as a whole, simply failed to learn. In other words, the knowledge was simply, not passed to all red robins.

What was the difference between the two species? Basically, the titmice underwent a remarkably successful process of institutional learning, while the red robins couldn’t do so. This could not be explained as a difference in communicating ability. Both species possess the same range of ability to communicate. The difference lies in the process of social propagation-the manner in which titmice disseminate their skills between members of the community. And here is the difference. The titmice live in pairs (male and female) during spring season. They live thus until their brood grow big enough to fly and feed on their own. By the time summer arrives, the titmice can be seen hopping from one garden to another in flocks. Their propensity to flock is so powerful that the groups remain practically intact, roving the countryside. This movement pattern lasts through the summer.

On the other hand, red robins are highly territorial birds. They care for their young ones but have no ability to move as a community. They guard their turf jealously, and the only real communication that takes place is antagonistic and adversarial. Wilson concluded that birds that flock learn much faster. Moreover, everyone is able to learn. This greatly enhances their chances of survival, and speeds their evolution. The lessons for organisational learning from this study are profound, to put it mildly.

How many organisations can you find where the communication is not adversarial? Territorial behaviour and turf guarding are staple diets in corporate corridors. Most organisational structures, in fact, encourage this behaviour, albeit unknowingly. The results are the same, just think, organisational charts have boxes in which people are placed. They then have functions and divisions to make things worse. This is the perfect setting for the proliferation of bureaucracy and empire-building. No wonder Hammer and Champy describe this as “The Humpty Dumpty School of Organisational Management” in their book, “Re-engineering the Corporation”.

Mobility comes from moving people across functions and divisions. That may be the easier of the two criteria. The tough one is social transmission. As long as corporations are organised around functional concepts, social transmission will take place in an antagonistic manner. Here lies the key, then: CEOs who continue to organise their structures by function are doomed to head unlearning organisations. Hey, even the humble titmouse has figured that out. What is preventing the lofty man from emulating the titmouse?


Function of skin

1) Regulation of Body Temperature

In response to high environmental temperature or strenuous exercise, the
evaporation of sweat from the skin surface helps lower an elevated body
temperature to normal. In response to low environmental temperature,
production of sweat is decreased, which helps conserve heat. Changes in
the flow of blood to the skin also help regulate body temperature.

2) Protection

The skin covers the body and provides a physical barrier that protects
underlying tissues from shocks, physical abrasion, bacterial invasion,
dehydration, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Hair and nails also have
protective functions.

3) Sensation

The skin contains abundant nerve endings and receptors that detect
stimuli related to temperature, touch, pressure, and pain and relate the
information to the nervous system.

4) Excretion

Besides removing heat and some water from the body, sweat also is the
vehicle for excretion of a small amount of salts and several organic
compounds by integumentary glands.

5) Storage of Nutrients

Lipids are stored in adipocytes in the dermis and in adipose tissue in the
subcutaneous layer. These are made available to the body when there is
depletion which may be due to starvation.

6) Blood Reservoir

The dermis of the skin houses extensive networks of blood vessels that
carry 8 to 10% of the total blood flow in a resting adult. In moderate
exercise, skin blood flow may increase, which helps dissipate heat from
the body. During hard exercise, however, skin blood vessels constrict
(narrow) somewhat, and more blood is able to circulate to contracting

7) Synthesis of Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of closely related compounds. Synthesis of
vitamin D begins with activation of a precursor molecule in the skin by
ultraviolet (UV) rays in sunlight. Enzymes in the liver and kidneys then
modify the molecule, finally producing calcitriol; the most active form
of vitamin D. Calcitriol contributes to the homeostasis of body fluids by
aiding absorption of calcium in foods. According to the synthesis
sequence just described, vitamin D is a hormone, since it is produced in
one location in the body, transported by the blood, and then exerts its
effect in another location. In this respect, the skin may be considered an
endocrine organ.



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It will make intro, animated logo, animated video and games

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The EM spectrum
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation may be a kind of energy that travels in waves at a speed of 186,000 miles (300,000 km) per second, that is that the quickest speed within the universe. Totally different forms of radiation form up the EM spectrum. Every kind of radiation except actinic ray area unit invisible.

The spectrum
The EM spectrum is created of seven major varieties of radiation, that vary within the length of their waves. The shorter the radiation’s wavelength, the upper its energy. The longest waves are often several miles long, whereas the shortest area unit shorter than one atom.

Sunlight contains ultraviolet (UV) rays.

Goggles, sunglasses, and sun screen defend the eyes and skin from actinic ray rays, which may be harmful.

Gamma rays have the best energy of all. Observatories live gamma rays emitted by extremely popular stars and different bodies in area.

X-rays have enough energy to suffer several materials. They’re accustomed scan the contents of luggage at security checks.

Radio waves have the longest wavelength. Radio and television broadcasts and Wi-Fi use radio waves.

Microwaves area unit accustomed heat food. They’re conjointly employed by cell phones.