BLACK HOLE

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Firstly Blackhole is not is hole.
It is a neutron star.

A Black hole formed when a star dies. The dead star firstly expand due to supernova and then squeeze or contract toward its core due to its high gravitational pull.
Due to this high contraction the electrons of atoms come near to protons in nucleus and become neutral. So that it is called neutron star.

This information is based on some famous theories.
According to some theories the size of a black hole can be as small as just one atom and big as 75 billion miles in diameter.


Currently the smallest known black hole is only 20 km in diameter and have mass equivalent approximetely 3.4 solarmass.
(1 solarmass= 1.8×10³⁰kg).

One teaspoonfull of black hole matter has equivalent mass of one earth. Because it is so dense.


The spin of black hole on its axis is nearly 3000 times faster then earth.
The inside temperature of black hole is very low about 1/10¹⁴kelvin while the outside temperature is very high.


The gravitational pull of black hole is very high. So it bends the space. Due to this bend in space, even light can not pass through a black hole (because light has the property to the travel in straight line).

Anything can never be fall in black hole directly. Due to black hole’s high spin, the object that fall in black hole rotate with a very high speed around it.


Even everything not fall in the black hole because due to high spin, and because of this the centrifugal force increases.
Due to increment in centrifugal force some mass can escape the gravitational pull of black hole.



If anything falls in blackhole, the body rotating and start to stretch toward its surface.
The body Stretch because gravity attract it toward the surface and high spin and high centrifugal force oppose this attraction. So both the phenomena of moving and attracting occur at same time and then the body get stretched.
Because of these phenomena, the form of body changes and it cannot remain stable.

If you fall into a blackhole, the time moves slowly for you due to bend in the space.


Mostly every galaxies has black hole in middle. Our galaxy(the milky way) also has a giant black hole in its middle.

Black holes cannot be observe or seen directly because they are black. They are observed by the radiation and stars moving around them.


Nearest found black hole to our solar system is HR 6819 and it is only 1000 light year away.
(Light year is the distance that travelled by light in one year with speed 3 lakh km/sec).



To come out from a black hole as impossible as to climbing on a waterfall from bottom to top by a boat.

to be continue……..



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THANK YOU

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ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

Graphic representation of trophic structure and function of an ecosystem, starting with producers at the base and successive trophic levels forming the apex is knows as an ecological pyramid.

  1. Pyramid of numbers: It is based upon the total biomass (dry matter) at each trophic level in a food chain. The pyramid of biomass can also be upright or inverted.3.5
  1. Pyramid of biomass: It is based upon the total biomass (dry matter) at each trophic level in a food chain. The pyramid of biomass can also be upright or inverted.3.6
  1. Pyramid of energy: The amount of energy present at each trophic level is considered for this type of pyramid. it is always upright. 3.7
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INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER – PART 2 FINAL

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

Below 100 kev •It is the emission  of electrons or other free carrier  when electromagnetic  Radiation  like visible light, x rays, y rays hits a material, electrons emits electrons. •Photon transfer all its energy to one of orbital electron of the atom. •Absorption of electron by atom leads to ionization by emission of electron  •Electron acquire kinetic energy of amount equal to that of photon  energy •Electron released in this called photoelectron.

3.1 CHARACTERSTIC RADIATION

•Produced by transition of electron from the outer to inner orbit of the atom (k&m shell)

For transition

•For transition of electron, it is necessary to create vacancy or a hole in inner orbit. •Once vacancy is created in inner shell of atom, electron from the outer shell falls to fill the vacancy. •Potential difference between potential energies of shell in transition is emitted as electromagnetic radiation called characteristic radiation of atom.

•Vacancy in k shell = K x ray •Vacancy in L shell = L x ray •If vacancy  created in k shell- filled by L shell •Difference between two energy eL –eK =  [-63-(-1072)] •Energy emitted as k x ray =1009 ev.

3.2 BREHMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION

•Radiative collision between electron and nucleus •when electron passing near nucleus suffer a sudden deflection and acceleration by a coloumb force of attraction. By the electron lose their K.E in the form of bremstrahlung x ray.

   also called braking radiation. •Amount of radiation production determined by distance between bombarding electron and nucleus Production increase with accelerating voltage and atomic no. of target material.

4 PAIR PRODUCTION

•Photon energy >1.02 mev passes close to the nucleus of an atom. •It interacts with the nucleus and emission of the positron (e+) and electron is ejected. k/a pair production. •The positron loose its energy after interacting with the electron and liberate annihilated photon of energy 0.51 mev in opposite direction. It is called annihilation process •Reason behind photon move in opposite direction is conserve momentum as they move at 1800

5. NUCLEAR DISINTEGRATION

•Nuclear process, energy of incident photon is more than >7mev •Photon enters to the nucleus and the particle (n+, p+, alpha particle) are emitted.

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