WHO – PART 2

WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY (PARLIAMENT)

The world health assembly is the supreme  decision making body for WHO.

It generally meets in Geneva in may each  year, and is attended by delegations from all  194 member states.

ØThe health assembly appoints the  Director-General. The current director

general of WHO is Dr. Tedros Adhanom  an  Ethiopian nationalist, who started his 5 year term on 1st July 2017.

MAIN FUNCTION OF ASSEMBLY ARE

  1. To determine international health policy and  programme.
  2. To review the work of past years 
  3. To approve the Budget.
  4. To elect member state to designate a person to  serve for 3 years on executive board.
  5. supervises the financial policies of the  organization and reviews and approves the  proposed program budget.

VISION

“The attainment by all people the highest  level of health”.

MISSION

“To lead strategic collaborative efforts among  Member States and other partners to promote  equity in health, to combat disease, and to  improve the quality of, and lengthen, the lives  of the all peoples of the world”.

Advertisements

FINALLY 100K+ VIEWS ON PENSER

THANKS FOR 1 LAKH VIEWS

this month is the first anniversary of PENSER and we congratulate our viewers on this anniversary.

last year is great for PENSER and it’s just because of our viewers. we’re glad that we got such an amazing and beautiful audience who loved us unconditionally

our audience gifted us 100k views and we are thankful for this. this is really an incredible gift ever.

PENSER is now a very big educational website. it has more than 200 articles on 15+ topics and 100000 views with 1.7k subscribers.

on last year we didn’t think that one day it would be so famous. but as we know great power comes with great responsibility. now viewers wants more and they have faith on us and we promise that we’ll give better information on some interesting topics

in last thank you all of you for making it successful.

TEAM PENSER

Advertisements

WHO – PART 1

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

INTRODUCTION

The World Health Organization is a  specialized agency  of United Nations. WHO was established on 7th April 1948. The headquarters of WHO is located in  Geneva. WHO serves as the directing and coordinating  authority for International health matters and  public health.

HISTORY

First global health organization. In latter half  of 19 th century, severe cholera epidemics  was occurred. At that time, series of  international sanitary conferences were held  in Europe to co-ordinate policy & practice  around quarantine & disease management. The League of Nations established a health  organization in 1920.

ESTABLISHMENT

Establishment of the United Nations is in  1945, marked as a period of aggressive  internationalism & international  organization building & though health was  not initially thought to be under the U.N.

After its motion started by Brazilian &  Chinese delegates to establish an  international health organization and that  was generally accepted.

A group of health experts, working on emergency  relief in World War II were charged with the task of  drafting a constitution to define the structure &  mandate of the body that would become known as  the World Health Organization  (WHO).

Finally, WHO’s constitution came into force on 7 th  April 1948. This date celebrates every year as “ WORLD HEALTH DAY” by all over world.

OBJECTIVE OF WHO

To develop & implement multisectorial public  policies for health, integrated gender- & age-  sensitive approaches that facilitate  community empowerment, together with  action for health promotion, self-care &  health protection throughout the life course  in cooperation with the relevant national and  International partners.

TO BE CONTINUE…

Advertisements

INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER

  1. COHERENT
  2. PHOTOELECTRIC
  3. COMPTON
  4. PAIR PRODUCTION
  5. PHOTO DISINTEGRATION

1. COHERENT SCATTERING

Scattering – in this x ray interact with matter

Elastic collision – in elastic collision  total kinetic energy of the body remains same

Photon energy = < 10 kev.

X ray photon passing close to the atom cause electron to vibrate at equal frequency  to the incident radiation. •

Wavelength remaining  same as of incident photon to that of emitted photon.

THOMSON

•Single electron involved •No ionization

RAYLEIGH

•All the electrons of an atom. •It is the phenomenon of scattering  of photon particle by the molecule of gas, multiple interaction of incidence radiation to electron of atom.

2. COMPTON

Inelastic collision • High energy photon (100kev or more) •Incident photon loose energy and its gain by the scatter radiation •Amount of energy gain by electron and loose by incident  photon are depend upon angle of scatter and energy of incident photon •Larger angle of scatter of photon, more energy loose to electron. (max 180°) back scatter. •E0 = E2 + E3.

3. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

•Below 100 kev •It is the emission  of electrons or other free carrier  when electromagnetic  Radiation  like visible light, x rays, y rays hits a material, electrons emits electrons. •Photon transfer all its energy to one of orbital electron of the atom. •Absorption of electron by atom leads to ionization by emission of electron  •Electron acquire kinetic energy of amount equal to that of photon  energy •Electron released in this called photoelectron.

TO BE CONTINUE…..

Advertisements

ASTEROID BELT

Article by – penserstudypoint



The asteroid belt is a large disc-shaped ring with large solid bodies such as asteroids (minor planets).

It divides the sequence of eight planets into two parts.

The four planets are before the asteroid belt towards the Sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars and the four planets are ahead of the asteroid belt are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Size of asteroid belt:-

The asteroid belt is about 150 million km thick and approximately 2.2 AU from the sun.
The estimated mass of the asteroid belt is 2.39 × 10²¹ kg while only mass of the Earth is larger than the mass of the entire asteroid belt and is about 5.9×10²⁴kg .

Materials in asteroid belt:-Most of the asteroid belt material was already lost during the early 100 million years of the solar system.

It mainly consists of three types of bodies in which the first type is C-type that are rich in carbon, the second type of bodies are S-type which is silicate rich body and the third type consists of M-type bodies which contain metals like iron and nickel.



The asteroid belt consists of about 1-1.7 million asteroids in a small area of 1 km or more in diameter and this data was traced by infrared wavelengths.

The asteroid belt has large bodies whose size is about 950 km and as short as dust particles.
There is also a dwarf planet named Ceres in the asteroid belt.
There are about 200 known asteroids have a diameter of more than a hundred kilometers in size.

Facts:-Meteroids entering the Earth’s atmosphere are also mostly from the asteroid belt. Meteroids are large bodies made up of ice and dust particles.

There is also a dwarf planet named Ceres in the asteroid belt

INTERNET

The Internet is the largest computer network in the world. It links millions of smaller networks which are connected to each other by phone lines, cables, or wireless connections.

If your computer is connected to the Internet, it can help you to get information from other computers, send messages to a friend who lives far away, or do lots of other amazing things like hear a song, or watch a famous movie.



This is possible because when you log on to the Internet, you are given access to the other computers that are also connected.

Today, people rarely write letters- they send e-mails instead. Electronic mail or e-mail, is a method of using your computer to send messages to other people who are connected to the Internet via their computers. Your message is first delivered to a computer called the mail server.

From there, it is transferred through the net, until it reaches its destination Just as you need to know a person’s address to send a letter, you have to know a person’s e-mail address to send an e-mail.

Advertisements
Advertisements

WHY FIRE IS TOO HOT ?

Post by penserstudypoint.com

Fire is a chemical reaction that occurs very quickly, and in the process, gives off heat and light.

Three things are necessary for this reaction to occur- fuel, oxygen, and heat.

Fuel whether it is paper or wood-by itself will not catch fire. It is only when the fuel is heated, and becomes hot enough, that the oxygen in the air combines freely with it to burst into flames.

The reason, fire is hot is because it releases a lot of energy that has been stored in fuel. For example, energy from sunlight is stored in the wood that is used as fuel.

When energy is released very quickly, heat and light are produced.


Thank you


purchase this book – https://amzn.to/3nFIr7i


Advertisements

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY – TIMELINE

HISTORY & ADVANCEMENT OF MRI

Photo by MART PRODUCTION on Pexels.com

In 1917 Radon develop the basic mathematical equation.

In 1920 develop the method to image the specific section of the body known as body section radiograph.

In 1935 Grossman define the technique and labelled it as tomography.

In 1937 Watson develop another tomography technique this is known as transverse axial tomography.

In 1940 frank and Takahashi published the basic principle of axial ct.

In 1956 Cormark developed the theory of image reconstruction.

In 1967 Hounsfield develop the clinical useful CT scanner.

In 1972 first clinical brain scanner.

In 1975 dynamic spatial reconstructor was installed a biodynamic unit
at the myoclinic.

1980 a high speed CT scanner introduced that is used electron beam technique was used to image the cardiovascular system to overcome motion artefact this is known as EBCT.

In 1992 the dual slice spiral CT scanner was introduced.

1998 MSCT was introduced at the radiological society of
north America in Chicago.

In 2000 , 16 & 32 slice CT scanner was introduced.

In 2004 , 64 slice Ct scanner was introduced.

In 2006 dual source CT scanner was introduced Two x-ray tube coupled two detector array.

In 2006, 256 slice was introduced.

In 2007, 320 slice was introduced

Advertisements

ULTRASOUND PART – 2

FORMATION OF IMAGE

  • Piezoelectric effect
  • Pulse echo principle

Piezoelectric effect

  • An electric current passes through a cable to the transducer and is applied to the crystals, causing them to deform and vibrate. This vibration produces the ultrasound beam.

pulse-echo principle, 

  • Explains how the image is generated.
  • Ultrasound waves are produced in pulses, not continuously, because the same crystals are used to generate and receive sound waves, and they cannot do both at the same time.
  •  In the time between the pulses, the ultrasound beam enters the patient and is bounced or reflected back to the transducer.
  • These reflected sound waves, or echoes, cause the crystals in the transducer to deform again and produce an electrical signal that is then converted into an image displayed on the monitor.
  • The transducer generally emits ultrasound only 1% of the time; the rest of the time is spent receiving the returning echoes.

Interaction of ultrasound with matter

  1. Reflection – occur at tissue boundary and it create ultrasound image
  2. Refraction – change in direction of the transmitted ultrasound energy.
  3. Scattering – occur by both reflection and refraction
  4. Attenuation/Absorption – conversion of acoustic energy into thermal energy in the medium.

R = [(Z2 – Z1) ÷ (Z2 + Z1)]2 

Z= acoustic impedance is a physical property of tissue. It is describe how much resistance an ultrasound beam encounters as it passes through a tissue

R = resistance coefficient

TYPES OF ULTRASOUND

  • 2D
  • 3D
  • DOPPLER

3dimensional

  • two-dimensional scans are then combined by specialized computer software to form 3D images
  • Early detection of cancerous and benign tumors
  • examining the prostate gland for early detection of tumors
  • looking for masses in the colon and rectum
  • detecting breast lesions for possible biopsies
  • Visualizing a fetus to assess its development, especially for observing abnormal development of the face and limbs

Doppler ultrasound

  • the object reflecting the ultrasound waves is moving, it changes the frequency of the echoes,
  • creating a higher frequency if it is moving toward the probe
  • lower frequency if it is moving away from the probe.
  • A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to estimate the blood flow through your blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells.

MODE OF USG

  • ultrasound examination can be displayed in a variety of ways, called modes.
  • three types of USG mode
  • A-mode – AMPLITUDE OF THE REPLICATED WAVE – about the depth of structure and the amplitude of the returning echo
  • B-mode – BRIGHTNESS MODE – 2d information about the cross section.
  • M-mode – MOTION MODE – evaluate motion and timing, and can document tissue movement in a still image when the recording of a clip is not feasible.

ADVANTAGE OF ULTRASOUND

  • To detect and measure distance of the object.
  • Helps in non-invasive painless treatment.
  • Preferred method to diagnose complications of unborn babies.
  • NON – IONIZATION
  • Ultrasound frequencies are unaffected by direct sunlight, fluorescent tubes and other sources of light.
  • Useful to acquire 3d image.

DISADVANTAGES OF ULTRASOUND

  • Ultrasound has limited use in the head and neck region because sound waves are absorbed by bone. Its use is therefore restricted to the superficial structure.
  • Lower resolution
  • Equipment expense
  • Less effective due to obesity ( subcutaneous fat ), gas ( gastric or intestinal),
  • Can’t penetrate bones and gas.
  • Do not provide direction and velocity of flow.
Advertisements

THANK YOU