SSC, an organization that comes under indian government.
SSC recruit employees for different ministries and department on different posts.


1-Inspector of Income Tax
2-Inspector (Examiner) [CBEC]
3-Inspector (Preventive Officer) [CBEC]
4-Inspector, (Central Excise) [CBEC]
5-Inspector of Posts [ Department of Post]
6-Assistant Enforcement Officer
7-Inspector [Central Bureau of Narcotics]
8-Divisional Accountant [Offices under CAG]
9-Statistical Investigator Gr.II
10-Assistant [Ministry of Railway]
11-Assistant [Central Vigilance Commission]
12-Assistant (Central Secretariat Service)
13-Assistant (Intelligence Bureau)
14-Assistant (Ministry of Affairs)
15-Assistant (Selection Officer)
16-Assistant (AHFQ)
17-Upper Divisional Clerk
18-Auditor (C& AG, CGDA, CGA)
19-Tax Assistant (CBEC & CBDT)
20-Junior Accountant


1-Lower Divisional Clerk (LDC)
2-Junior Secretariat Assistant (JSA)
3-Postal Assistant (PA)
4-Sorting Assistant (SA)
5-Data Entry Operator (DEO)


1-JE (Civil), Central Water Commission
2-JE (Mechanical), Central Water Commission
3-JE (Civil), CPWD
4-JE (Electrical), CPWD
5-JE (Civil), Department of Post
6-JE (Civil), Military Engineering Service
7-JE (Electrical and Mechanical), Military Engineering Service
8-JE (Quality Surveying and Contract), Military Engineering Service.
9-JE (Civil), Farrakka Barrage Project
10-JE (Mechanical), Farrakka Barrage Project
11-JE (Electrical), Farrakka Barrage Project
12-JE (Civil), Director General Border Roads
13-JE (Electrical), Director General Border Roads
14-JE (Mechanical), Director General Border Roads
15-Junior Engineer (Civil), Central Water Power Research Station
16-Junior Engineer (Electrical), Central Water Power Research Station
17-Junior Engineer (Mechanical) (Naval Quality Assurance), DGQA, Ministry of Defence
18-Junior Engineer (Electrical) (Naval Quality Assurance), DGQA, Ministry of Defence
19-Junior Engineer (Civil), National Technical Research Organisation
20-Junior Engineer (Electrical), National Technical Research Organisation.
21-Junior Engineer (Mechanical), National Technical Research Organisation.


The SSC CGL exam is the Combined Graduate Level exam. This exam is conducted to recruit candidates in different Group B and Group C posts in various Government Departments and Ministries. The SSC CHSL exam, however, is the Combined Higher Secondary Level Examination.


PART-1 :General intelligence and reasoning:

*Similarities and differences
*Space visualization
*Spatial orientation
*Problem solving
*Decision making
*Visual memory
*Relationship concepts
*Arithmetical reasoning and figural classification
*Arithmetic number series
*Non-verbal series
*Coding and decoding
*Statement conclusion
*Syllogistic reasoning etc
*Semantic analogy
*Symbolic/ Number Analogy
*Figural analogy
*Semantic classification
*Symbolic/ number classification
*Figural classification
*Semantic series
*Number series
*Figural series
*Word building
*Coding and de-coding
*Numerical operations
*Symbolic operations
*Space orientation
*Venn diagrams
*Drawing inferences
*Punched hole/ pattern-folding and un-folding
*Figural pattern-folding and completion
*Address matching
*Date and city matching
*Classification of centre codes/ roll numbers
*Small and capital letters/ numbers coding
*Decoding and classification
*Embedded figures
*Critical thinking
*Emotional intelligence
*Social intelligence

Part-2 :General awareness:

*General Awareness of the Environment and its Application to Society
*Knowledge of current events and of such matters of every day observations, and experience in their scientific aspect
*India and its neighbouring countries especially pertaining history, culture, etc.

Part-3 :Quantitative aptitude:

*Computation of whole numbers
*Fractions and relationships between numbers
*Ratio and proportion
*Square roots
*Profit and loss
*Partnership business
*Mixture and alligation
*Time and distance
*Time and work
*Basic algebraic identities of school algebra and elementary surds
*Graphs of linear equations
*Triangle and its various kinds of centres
*Congruence and similarity of triangles
*Circle and its chords
*Angles subtended by chords of a circle
*Common tangents to two or more circles
*Regular polygons
*Right prism
*Right circular cone
*Right circular cylinder
*Rectangular parallelepiped
*Regular right pyramid with triangular or square base
*Trigonometric ratio
*Degree and radian measures
*Standard identities
*Complementary angles
*Heights and distances
*Frequency polygon
*Bar diagram and pie chart

Part-4 :English comprehension:
*Basic comprehension and writing ability



When things push against one another, they produce pressure.

Pressure may be a live of what proportion force pushes against every purpose on associate object’s surface. Here on Earth, we have a tendency to square measure beneath constant pressure. Air might sound like emptiness, however it still has mass, therefore gravity pulls it down toward the bottom. This makes gas pressure, a force unfold everywhere your body.

Pressure is what happens once a force pushes on a surface. Additional force makes additional pressure. Once identical force presses over a smaller space, the pressure becomes larger. However if the force is meet a bigger space, the pressure reduces. Sometimes, we do not notice pressure till the force is discharged.

Person will simply stand on a bed of nails. Their body has weight, which implies gravity pulls it down with tons of force. however after they stand on many nails, their weight is shared across all. The pressure on every nail is incredibly little, so that they aren’t getting scraped.

Life would be not possible while not pressure. Blood flows around your body as a result of your heart pumps it with enough pressure to succeed in your fingers and toes. Water will flow to your home as a result of it’s hold on high in reservoirs and tanks. Gravity pulls the water down, giving it pressure that produces it spray from the tap. Pressure is additionally wont to create several tools work, from vacuum cleaners to pushpins, and automotive engines to airplanes.

Air on top of pressure is formed by the burden of air you. If you climb a mountain, there’s less air on top of you, and so less gas pressure. It’s more durable for air to induce into your body and more durable for you to breathe. High within the sky, there’s hardly any gas pressure, and respiratory is nearly not possible. Planes have their compartments controlled by pumps therefore individuals within will breathe commonly.

Air pressure changes our weather. Air mass brings storms and rain. a
Air mass suggests that sunshine. We are able to predict the weather employing a measuring device to live gas pressure. Within this one may be a box stuffed with air. Because the gas pressure changes, the box squeezes in and out. This moves the needle round the dial.

The deeper you dive to a lower place the ocean, the additional pressure there’s. That is as a result of there’s additional water over your head pushing down. Water is denser than air identical quantity of it weighs more-so water pressure affects things over gas pressure. That is why ventilator diverse will go down solely a brief distance, and why submarines want hulls manufactured from sturdy metal to face up to the pressure. during a milk carton, the liquid close to very cheap is squeezed by the burden of the liquid on high.

Book –



Stars are born, develop, flourish, and die over periods of millions or billions of years. The mass of the star will often determine its end as stars change and die in different ways. Their deaths leave behind different phenomena, all of which, from white dwarfs to black holes, fascinate astronomers.

Most stars are born in enormous star nurseries, known as nebulae. A nebula consists of giant clouds of gas, mostly hydrogen and helium, and dust. Gravitational pull in denser parts of the nebula, sometimes caused by nearby stars or explosions, sees matter clumping together, increasing in mass and temperature, and generating its own gravity.

As a large clump of gas shrinks and grows hotter, it is labelled a protostar. This is a potential star in the making. Eventually, most protostars get dense and hot enough to trigger off nuclear reactions deep inside them and the stars start to shine. This initial burst of energy blows away dust and gas surrounding these early stars.

The main sequence is a long period, usually lasting billions of years, in which a star generates energy through nuclear fusion, turning hydrogen into helium in its core. For stars up to three times the mass of our Sun, the main sequence comprises about 90 per cent of their life span. The Sun has been in its main sequence for more than 4 billion years.

When a star of the Sun’s size has used up most of the hydrogen fuel in its core it swells up to become a red giant. When more massive stars, eight or more times greater in mass than our Sun, start to swell, they become supergiants, Betelgeuse (also known as Alpha Orionis) is a red supergiant. It is so huge that if it replaced the Sun in our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the asteroid belt.

Some protostars do not have enough mass to trigger nuclear reactions and become stars. Instead, they generate smaller amounts of energy through continuing contraction. These failed stars are known as brown dwarfs. They will radiate their remaining heat out into space, slowly fading until they have no energy left, at which point they are known as black dwarfs.

After completing their main sequence, stars that are a similar size to the Sun start to collapse, increasing in density and temperature. The stars then swell to enormous size, before throwing off their outer layers as giant clouds of gas. The clouds cool to form a planetary nebula, surrounding the star’s remains, known as a white dwarf. Since the discovery of the Dumbbell Nebula in 1764, more than 3,000 planetary nebulae have been observed.

A white dwarf may have run out of hydrogen or helium fuel to burn in its core, but it will continue to shine for many millions of years. White dwarfs can range in colour from hot white through to cool red. Scientists estimate that a typical white dwarf is so dense that a teaspoonful of its matter would weigh about 5 tonnes. As with a brown dwarf, white dwarfs fade over time to become black dwarfs.

As some massive stars die, their cores contract sharply and temperatures rise by millions of degrees. The core absorbs more and more energy before erupting in a gigantic explosion. In the first 10 seconds of a typical supernova explosion, 100 times more energy is produced than the Sun will generate during its entire lifetime.

Some massive star deaths result in the core collapsing in on itself to form a neutron star – the smallest, densest stars known in the Universe. Neutron stars may be under 20 km (12 miles) in diameter yet contain the same mass as the Sun. Rapidly spinning neutron stars send out radio waves that we can pick up on Earth. These stars are known as pulsars.

Some stars collapse even further, into a dense point called a singularity, The space immediately around a singularity is called a black hole. It is so dense and the pull of gravity so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from it. Astronomers cannot observe a black hole directly, only its effects on nearby objects, such as the pull of gas into the hole, which can release powerful X-rays.



Common Admission Test or CAT exam is a common aptitude test which is a gateway to 20 IIMs and over 1,200 B-schools in India. CAT is conducted by the IIMs on rotational basis.

Syllabus of CAT:-

Data interpretation –

Verbal ability and reading comprehension –

Logical reasoning –

Quantative aptitude –

More books to read with CAT

Word power made easy –

The lord of the rings –

The alchemist –

Gulliver’s travels –

Logical reasoning –
Verbal ability and reading comprehension –
data interpetation –
Quantative aptitude –
The lord of the rings –
Word power made easy –
The alchemist –
Gulliver’s travels –


The science of plant biology is primarily the study of flowering plants or angiosperms. Flowering plants square measure out and away the foremost necessary cluster of plants within the world, providing the overwhelming majority of plant species (over 250 000 in all) and most of the biomass onto land, and that they square measure the premise for nearly all our food.

Historically, the science of plant biology, or botany, has enclosed all living organisms except animals, however it’s clear that there’s a serious division of life between cells with an easy level of organization, the prokaryotes, and people with far more advanced cells, the eukaryotes.

The prokaryotes embrace microorganism and bacteria-like organisms and can not be thought-about more during this book except in regard to plants, though some retain plant-like names, like touching on the gut ‘flora’ for the microorganism in class guts, and blue-green algae’ for the true bacteria. Among eukaryotes 3 main cellular king doms square measure recognized: animals, plants and fungi. there’s a fourth hetero geneous cluster of eukaryotes that square measure chiefly animate thing however with a number of cellular teams like slime molds and enormous alga.

A number of these have affinity with animals, some with plants, some with fungi and a few don’t have any obvious affinity. they’re sorted along, for convenience, as a kingdom, the protists, division Protista (or Protoctista).

There is no clear boundary between protists and plants, and authors disagree during which organisms they take into account during which kingdom. cellular chlorophyte and, to a lesser extent brown and alga, have several options in common with land plants and square measure the dominant chemical change organisms in shallow seas. Animate thing being teams kind the premise of the organic phenomenon within the deep ocean.
Of these alga square measure chemical change, like plants, and share some characters. they’re thought-about during this book for comparison with alternative plants in Section P. alternative protists, animals and fungi won’t be thought-about more except in regard to plants.
Plant teams apart from flowering plants, like mosses, ferns and conifers, disagree in varied ways in which.

To characterize the options that outline plants as totally different from alternative eukaryotes is sort of not possible since each feature has exceptions, however typically these excep tions square measure among plants that have lost the feature or square measure among the alga on the boundary between protists and plants.

*They’re chemical change and procure all their nutrients from inorganic sources, i.e. they’re plant and also the begin of a organic phenomenon. several protists, significantly among the being, also are chemical change. a number of plants derive all or a part of their nutrients from alternative organisms. however these square measure closely associated with alternative, chemical change, flowering plants.

* The chemical change pigment is chlorophyl, and altogether plants except some alga, there square measure 2 forms, a and b, contained among chloroplasts.

*The cells have a semipermeable membrane created preponderantly of the sugar cellulose, and a cavity additionally to the protoplasm.

*There’s an alternation of diploid and haploid generations. usually one in all these is way reduced and should not live severally.

Vegetative structure and physiology is analogous throughout the seed plants (flowering plants, conifers and a few smaller groups) and there square measure several simi larities with alternative tube-shaped structure plants furthermore, however the procreative structures disagree markedly.

Larger alga and bryophytes disagree additional essentially in vegetative and plant organ.



Over a lot of years, living things amendment in response to variations in their surroundings. This can be known as evolution and it happens through a method known as survival. Changes that make a lot of seemingly to assist a plant or animal survive to passed to future generations, however living things with changes that aren’t suited to survival die out.

Natural selection has made living things that are beautifully custom-made to life within the places wherever they live. Species that have diversifications higher suited to associate surroundings square measure a lot of seemingly to survive than people who don’t. Plants in deserts got to be ready to save water, whereas animals within the Arctic got to survive the cold.

Human evolution
Humans evolved from apelike ancestors over a lot of years. In this time, totally different species evolved and were replaced till trendy humans 1st appeared.

Changes to the surroundings, like temperature change, will cause the disappearance of an entire species during a method known as extinction. Extinction is a crucial a part of the evolution method as a result of it offers alternative species the possibility to interchange extinct ones.

The archosaur duck-billed dinosaur became extinct concerning seventy five million years past

For more:-


In a solid, like a brick or a lump of metal, the atoms or molecules are bound tightly. They can’t move around, or move nearer to or farther from one another. This suggests that almost all solid substances have a set form that’s troublesome to alter, except by powerfully compression or stretching them, or by breaking them apart. However, some solids are elastic, which means their atoms will move apart slightly and are available back along while not breaking to items.

Solids may be light-weight or heavy, arduous or soft, shiny or boring, sharp or sleek. Some, like gossamer crystals, don’t have any color in any respect. The burden of a solid depends on the categories of atoms within it and also the distance between them. Terribly serious solids have compact, big, serious atoms. The stronger the links, or bonds, between them, the tougher it’s to alter the solid’s form.

Some solids type crystals. These have flat faces, straight edges, and sharp corne.

A crystal’s form is predicated on the method the various atoms and molecules within work against one another, like fitting along different-shaped building blocks. With a lot of blocks, the form step by step grows larger, however keeps an equivalent faces, edges, and corners.

It’s troublesome to alter the form of a thick bundle of rope. Unwind the bundle and one strand bends simply. Fibrous solids use plenty of fragile fibers twisted or plain-woven along to make a way stronger material.



All around US is associate invisible mixture of gases we tend to decision air. It contains concerning fifteen completely different gases, though most of it’s simply two-nitrogen and element. The precise content of air varies from place to position. For instance, damp air has additional vapour than dry air. Hazy air contains additional floating mud particles than clean air. The blanket of air around Earth is understood because the atmosphere and this can be wherever weather happens.

As the Earth and its atmosphere spin once every day, the sun warms different areas by different amounts. Warm air is lighter and rises, therefore cooler air flows on to require its place. This moving air is wind and it’s a kind of energy. we tend to catch and use wind energy in many ways, from ancient windmills that grind grain and elevate water, to the most recent wind turbines manufacturing electricity.

Almost all of air—about ninety nine percent—is nitrogen.

The sounds we tend to hear is created by vibrations within the air. These travel into our ears, wherever nerves develop the vibrations and send signals to our brains. Our voices, musical instruments, and horns and sirens all go by inflicting vibrations within the air.

Smog could be a mixture of smoke and fog. It forms in settled areas wherever mud, smoke, fumes, and chemicals from cars and different vehicles, factories, and power plants all create the air hazy. Air pollution is worse once there’s no wind, or once hotter air flows over the impure air and traps it close to the bottom. It will cause respiration issues and different health hazards.

All the air within the atmosphere weighs half dozen.1 quadrillion tons. Concerning 1/millionth of Earth’s weight.


Like islands in a vast sea of space, most galaxies are millions of light-years apart. However, some galaxies are close enough to be pulled by gravity into clusters. Members of galaxy clusters can pull on each other so strongly that they collide.

Stephan’s Quintet is a group of galaxies that appear to be smashing into each other. Four of them are about 280 million light-years away from Earth, but the fifth is closer to us. NGC 7318b is passing through the main group at nearly 200 million mph (320 million km/h). This creates a shock wave that causes the gas between the galaxies to heat up and give out X-rays (the light blue region in the middle).

Cluster collision
The ultimate crashes occur when several clusters of galaxies collide. The biggest collision astronomers have seen so far is a pile-up of four clusters called MACS J0717. This filament (stream) of galaxies, gas, and dark matter is 13 million light-years long. It is moving into an area already packed with matter, causing repeated collisions. When the gas in two or more clusters collides, the hot gas slows down. Galaxies don’t slow down as much, so they end up moving ahead of the gas.

A distorted view
Some galaxy clusters act as magnifying glasses in the sky. Their powerful gravity distorts the space around them. This means that light from more distant galaxies or quasars is bent on its way to us. We see multiple arcs and distorted images of the distant object, like a mirage in space.



The first artificial (entirely human-made) plastic was created within the early decade. Today, it’s one in every of our most helpful and all-mains materials. There area unit many totally different varieties of plastics, altogether varieties of totally different colours, and with every kind of various properties, from sturdy and arduous to soft and versatile. Most plastics soften once they are heated, thus they are straightforward to mould into any form. This makes them helpful for several various things.

Most modern plastics made of fossil fuel, that is extracted from deep underground. The oil is separated into totally different chemicals, which may be waste plastics. Once the planet runs out of fossil fuel, we are going to got to deem plastics made of material (bioplastics).

PLASTICS everyplace
Plastics area unit extraordinarily helpful, and our lives would be terribly totally different while not them. Plastics area unit waterproof and don’t rot away, making them nice for storing liquids. they will be simply cleansed, creating them safe and healthful for making ready and storing food. They will be created into nearly any form, thus are often accustomed build machines and toys. and that they will withstand bright colours in nearly any shade.

Plastics sometimes contain many alternative chemicals, referred to as additives, to relinquish them totally different properties. Some area unit mixed with hardeners in order that they area unit robust and resist scratching. Others have chemical additives in order that they can squash and bend simply, then spring back to their original form, like natural rubber.

Lighter than glass, and far less fragile, clear plastics area unit ideal for everything from windows to water bottles. We are able to see through these plastics owing to the means their molecules are organized. All plastics are created up from long chains referred to as polymers. If these polymers all line up side-by-side, the plastic becomes gossamer.

PLASTIC exercise
Most plastics are long and don’t rot away. This makes them terribly helpful. In contrast to wood and natural textiles, plastics keep around after we throw them away, increase in rubbish plenty. The most effective thanks to contend with this can be to break up used plastic and switch it into new merchandise we are able to use once more. This method is named exercise.