ASTEROID BELT

Article by – penserstudypoint



The asteroid belt is a large disc-shaped ring with large solid bodies such as asteroids (minor planets).

It divides the sequence of eight planets into two parts.

The four planets are before the asteroid belt towards the Sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars and the four planets are ahead of the asteroid belt are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Size of asteroid belt:-

The asteroid belt is about 150 million km thick and approximately 2.2 AU from the sun.
The estimated mass of the asteroid belt is 2.39 × 10²¹ kg while only mass of the Earth is larger than the mass of the entire asteroid belt and is about 5.9×10²⁴kg .

Materials in asteroid belt:-Most of the asteroid belt material was already lost during the early 100 million years of the solar system.

It mainly consists of three types of bodies in which the first type is C-type that are rich in carbon, the second type of bodies are S-type which is silicate rich body and the third type consists of M-type bodies which contain metals like iron and nickel.



The asteroid belt consists of about 1-1.7 million asteroids in a small area of 1 km or more in diameter and this data was traced by infrared wavelengths.

The asteroid belt has large bodies whose size is about 950 km and as short as dust particles.
There is also a dwarf planet named Ceres in the asteroid belt.
There are about 200 known asteroids have a diameter of more than a hundred kilometers in size.

Facts:-Meteroids entering the Earth’s atmosphere are also mostly from the asteroid belt. Meteroids are large bodies made up of ice and dust particles.

There is also a dwarf planet named Ceres in the asteroid belt

WHY FIRE IS TOO HOT ?

Post by penserstudypoint.com

Fire is a chemical reaction that occurs very quickly, and in the process, gives off heat and light.

Three things are necessary for this reaction to occur- fuel, oxygen, and heat.

Fuel whether it is paper or wood-by itself will not catch fire. It is only when the fuel is heated, and becomes hot enough, that the oxygen in the air combines freely with it to burst into flames.

The reason, fire is hot is because it releases a lot of energy that has been stored in fuel. For example, energy from sunlight is stored in the wood that is used as fuel.

When energy is released very quickly, heat and light are produced.


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DYNAMICS

Physics is the study of dynamics. Dynamics is the description of the actual forces of nature that, we believe, underlie the causal structure of the Universe and are responsible for its evolution in time. We are about to embark upon the intensive study of a simple description of nature that introduces the concept of a force, due to Isaac Newton. A force is considered to be the causal agent that produces the effect of acceleration in any massive object, altering its dynamic state of motion.

Newton was not the first person to attempt to describe the underlying nature of causal ity. Many, many others, including my favorite ‘dumb philosopher’, Aristotle, had attempted this. The major difference between Newton’s attempt and previous ones is that Newton did not frame his as a philosophical postulate per se. Instead he formulated it as a mathemat ical theory and proposed a set of laws that (he hoped) precisely described the regularities of motion in nature.

In physics a law is the equivalent of a postulated axiom in mathematics. That is, a physical law is, like an axiom, an assumption about how nature operates that not formally provable by any means, including experience, within the theory. A physical law is thus not considered “correct” – rather we ascribe to it a “degree of belief” based on how well and consistently it describes nature in experiments designed to verify and falsify its correspon dence.

It is important to do both. Again, interested students are are encouraged to look up Karl Popper’s “Falsifiability 29 and the older Postivism30. A hypothesis must successfully withstand the test of repeated, reproducible experiments that both seek to disprove it and to verify that it has predictive value in order to survive and become plausible. And even then, it could be wrong!

If a set of laws survive all the experimental tests we can think up and subject it to,

we consider it likely that it is a good approximation to the true laws of nature; if it passes many tests but then fails others (often failing consistently at some length or time scale) then we may continue to call the postulates laws (applicable within the appropriate milieu) but recognize that they are only approximately true and that they are superceded by some more fundamental laws that are closer (at least) to being the “true laws of nature”.

Newton’s Laws, as it happens, are in this latter category – early postulates of physics that worked remarkably well up to a point (in a certain “classical” regime) and then failed. They are “exact” (for all practical purposes) for massive, large objects moving slowly com pared to the speed of light3³1 for long times such as those we encounter in the everyday world of human experience (as described by Sl scale units). They fail badly (as a basis for prediction) for microscopic phenomena involving short distances, small times and masses, for very strong forces, and for the laboratory description of phenomena occurring at rela tivistic velocities. Nevertheless, even here they survive in a distorted but still recognizable form, and the constructs they introduce to help us study dynamics still survive.

Interestingly, Newton’s laws lead us to second order differential equations, and even quantum mechanics appears to be based on differential equations of second order or less. Third order and higher systems of differential equations seem to have potential problems with temporal causality (where effects always follow, or are at worst simultaneous with, their causes in time); it is part of the genius of Newton’s description that it precisely and sufficiently allows for a full description of causal phenomena, even where the details of that causality turn out to be incorrect.

Incidentally, one of the other interesting features of Newton’s Laws is that Newton in vented calculus to enable him to solve the problems they described. Now you know why calculus is so essential to physics: physics was the original motivation behind the invention of calculus itself. Calculus was also (more or less simultaneously) invented in the more useful and recognizable form that we still use today by other mathematical-philosophers such as Leibnitz, and further developed by many, many people such as Gauss, Poincare, Poisson, Laplace and others.

In the overwhelming majority of cases, especially in the early days, solving one or more problems in the physics that was still being invented was the motivation behind the most significant developments in calculus and differential equa tion theory. This trend continues today, with physics providing an underlying structure and motivation for the development of much of the most advanced mathematics.

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Inertial Frames

We are now finally prepared to tackle a very difficult concept. All of our dynamics so far is based on the notion that we can formulate it in an inertial frame. It’s right there in Newton’s Laws – valid only in inertial frames, and we can now clearly see that if we are not in such a frame we have to account for pseudoforces before we can solve Newtonian problems in that frame.

This is not a trivial question. The Universe doesn’t come with a frame attached – frames are something we imagine, a part of the conceptual map we are trying to build in our minds in an accurate correspondence with our experience of that Universe. When we look out of our window, the world appears flat so we invent a Cartesian flat Earth. Later, further experience on longer length scales reveals that the world is really a curved, approximately spherical object that is only locally flat -a manifold⁶⁷ in fact.

Similarly we do simple experiments suspending masses from strings, observing blocks sliding down inclined planes, firing simple projectiles and observing their trajec tories – under the assumption that our experiential coordinates associated with the Earth’s surface form an inertial frame, and Newton’s Laws appear to work pretty well in them at first. But then comes the day when we fire a naval cannon at a target twenty kilometers to the north of us and all of our shots consistently miss to the east of it because of that pesky coriolis force – the pseudoforce in the rotating frame of the earth and we learn of our mistake.

We learn to be cautious in our system of beliefs. We are always doing our experiments and making our observations in a sort of “box”, a box of limited range and resolution. We have to accept the fact that any set of coordinates we might choose might or might not be inertial, might or might not be “flat”, that at best they might be locally flat and inertial within the box we can reach so far.

In this latter, highly conservative point of view, how do we determine that the coordi nates we are using are truly inertial? To put it another way, is there a rest frame for the Universe, a Universal inertial frame S from which we can transform to all other frames S’, inertial or not?

The results of the last section provide us with one possible way. If we systematically determine the force laws of nature, Newton tells us that all of those laws involve two ob jects (at least). I cannot be pushed unless I push back on something. In more appropriate language (although not so conceptually profound) all of the force laws are laws of interac tion.

I interact with the Earth by means of gravity, and with a knowledge of the force law I can compute the force I exort on the Earth and the force the Earth exerts on me given only a knowledge of our mutual relative coordinates in any coordinate system.

Later we will learn that the same is more or less true for the electromagnetic interaction – it is a lot more complicated, in the end, than gravity, but it is still true that a knowledge of the trajectories of two charged objects suffices to determine their electromagnetic interaction. and there is a famous paper by Wheeler and Feynman that suggests that even “radiation reaction” (something that locally appears as a one-body self-force) is really a consequence of interaction with a Universe of charge pairs.

This, then, allows us to cleanly differentiate real forces and pseudoforces. Real forces always involve two objects, where pseudolorces have no Newton’s Third Law partner! In the Elevator and Boxcar examples below, real gravity is identified by the fact that while the Earth pulls down on the mass in question, the mass pulls up on the Earth! Where the normal force acts on it, it pushes back on the object exerting the normal force. When tension in a string pulis it, it pulls back on the string.

There is no Newton’s third law partner to the F -ma pseudoforce arising from the acceleration of the frame! Furthermore, this “pseudogravity” behaves differently from actual gravity- it is (for example) perfectly uniform within the trame no matter how large the frame might be where actual gravity drops off (however slightly) as one moves verti cally, with the field lines slowly diverging (because the gravitational field diverges from its massive sources).

One has to work a bit harder to make this operational distinction clear when one builds a (relativistic, quantum) field theory, but throughout physics it remains the case that forces (or their quantum equivalents, “interactions”) never accur in isolation, while

pseudoforces “just happen” with nothing else making them happen.

The point is that in the end, the operational definition of an inertial frame is that it is a frame where Newton’s Laws are true for a closed, finite set of (force) Law of Nature that all involve well-defined interaction in the coordinates of the inertial frame. In that case we can add up all of the actual forces acting on any mass.

If the observed movement of that mass is in correspondence with Newton’s Laws given that total force, the frame must be inertial! Otherwise, there must be at least one “force” that we cannot identify in terms of any interaction pair, and examined closely, it will have a structure that suggests some sort of acceleration of the frame rather than interaction per se with a (perhaps still undiscovered) interaction law.

There is little more that we can do, and even this will not generally suffice to prove that any given frame is truly inertial. For example, consider the “rest frame” of the visible Universe, which can be thought of as a sphere some 13.7 billion Light Years⁶⁸ in radius surrounding the Earth.

To the best of our ability to tell, there is no compelling asymmetry of velocity or relative acceleration within that sphere-all motion is reasonably well accounted for by means of the known forces plus an as yet unknown force, the force associated with “dark matter” and “dark energy”, that still appears to be a local interaction but one we do not yet understand.

How could we tell if the entire sphere were uniformly accelerating in some direction, however? Note well that we can only observe near-Earth gravity by its opposition – in a freely falling box all motion in box coordinates is precisely what one would expect if the box were not falling! The pseudoforce associated with the motion only appears when relating the box coordinates back to the actual unknown inertial frame.

If all of this gives you a headache, well, it gives me a bit of a headache too. The point is once again that an inertial frame is practically speaking a frame where Newton’s Laws hold, and that while the coordinate frame of the visible Universe is probably the best that we can do for a Universal rest frame, we cannot be certain that it is truly inertial on a much larger length scale – we might be able to detect it if it wasn’t, but then, we might not.

Einstein extended these general meditations upon the invariance of frames to invent first special relativity (frame transformations that leave Maxwell’s Equations form invariant and hence preserve the speed of light in all inertial frames) and then general relativity, which is discussed a bit further below.

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The Bending of Light in a Gravitational Field

Let us consider a ray of light that shines through a window in an elevator at rest, as shown in figure. The ray of light follows a straight line path and hits the opposite wall of the elevator at the point P.

Let us now repeat the experiment, but let the elevator accelerate upward very rapidly, as shown in figure. The ray of light enters the window as before, but before it can cross the room to the opposite wall the elevator is displaced upward because of the acceleration. Instead of the ray of light hitting the wall at the point P, it hits at some lower point Q because of the upward acceleration of the elevator.

To an observer in the elevator, the ray of light follows the parabolic path, as shown in figure. Thus, in the accelerated coordinate system of the elevator, light does not travel in a straight line, but instead follows a curved path. But by the principle of equivalence the accelerated elevator can be replaced by a gravitational field. Therefore light should be bent from a straight line path in the presence of a gravitational field.

The gravitational field of the earth is relatively small and the bending cannot be measured on earth. However, the gravitational field of the sun is much larger and Einstein predicted in 1916 that rays of light that pass close to the sun should be bent by the gravitational field of the sun.



Another way of considering this bending of light is to say that light has energy and energy can be equated to mass, thus the light-mass should be attracted to the sun. Finally, we can think of this bending of light in terms of the curvature of spacetime caused by the mass of the sun. Light follows the shortest path, called a geodesic, and is thus bent by the curvature of spacetime.

Regardless of which conceptual picture we pick, Einstein predicted that a ray of light should be deflected by the sun by the angle of 1.75 seconds of arc. In order to observe this deflection it was necessary to measure the angular deviation between two stars when they are far removed from the sun, and then measure the deflection again when they are close to the sun. Of course when they are close to the sun, there is too much light from the sun to be able to see the stars.

Hence, to test out Einstein’s prediction it was necessary to measure the separation during a total eclipse of the sun. Sir Arthur Eddington led an expedition to the west coast of Africa for the solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and measured the deflection. On November 6, 1919, the confirmation of Einstein’s prediction of the bending of light was announced to the world.

More modern techniques used today measure radio waves from the two quasars, 3c273 and 3c279 in the constellation of Virgo.

A quasar is a quasi-stellar object, a star that emits very large quantities of radio waves. Because the sun is very dim in the emission of radio waves, radio astronomers do not have to wait for an eclipse to measure the angular separation but can measure it at any time.

On October 8, 1972, when the quasars were close to the sun, radio astronomers measured the angular separation between 3c273 and 3c279 in radio waves and found that the change in the angular separation caused by the bending of the radio waves around the sun was 1.73 seconds of arc, in agreement with the general theory of relativity.

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TIME TRAVEL & WORMHOLES – myth or truth

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At present, we are changing according to the time. Time not change according to us. But what if we change the time. Time travel An imaginary thought.

We don’t know if It will be future or past. It is like changing time’s direction to past or increasing time’s speed to future, but if it will be possible in the future, It may be travel to past.

According to relativity, Nothing can travel faster than light (3 × 10⁸m/sec.). At light speed, mass will be infinite (according to relativistic mass formula) . And the length of object will be zero (according to length contraction formula). But if we travel with the light speed, what can we see? Is there any color? Is there any boundary of anything? Only white light appears on moving with light speed. Everything is white.

At present, black holes are the best source to see the past. Where, light cannot even pass through. The body’s shape , space-time will be changed at light speed . 

Even if we travel with such a high-speed it will take 2000 years in reaching and coming back to Earth from a thousand light years away star(or any Terrestrial body in space). When you travel such a large distance, an atom, the smallest unit of matter also traveled to that distance, and it is amazing to imagine.

Wormholes

According to scientists, a wormhole is a cylindrical path between two heavy bodies in space. It is not from any science fiction movie. It is scientist’s thoughts. 

Wormhole forms by two giant bodies have very high gravity value like black holes. If a path is a thousand light years long, wormholes can make it a few million miles long. So, it may be a possibility to travel faster than light.

In 1835, Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen called them Einstein-Rosen Bridge. Bridge that connects two, bodies that are light years far away from each others.

Worm holes are like tunnels in space connecting to distant bodies because space and time are flexible (according to Einstein). Through the wormholes we can cover very long distance in a very short period.

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According to another theory we can travel with light speed. The theory proposed that, if we are stable and space can move. In this theory, a large heavy body contract the space with fast and alternately a negative mass, behind the large body, can expand that contracted space.

Negative mass is only a hypothetical Idea. It behaves just opposite of positive mass that we have.

Positive mass can contract the space while a negative mass can expand it. Due to this, we remain stable on a position and space can move.

If all this phenomena possible, we can cover large distance with speed of light by stay at a place without any change.

To be continue…

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COLOURS OF FEATHER

Feathers, are important parts of a bird’s flying equipment’. A bird’s tail feathers are used for lifting, steering, and breaking, and these are perfectly symmetrical, to allow a balanced and smooth flight.

Along the sides of a bird’s feathers are barbs, which if separated, look like a fringe, or even like the threads that stick out from the edge of a piece of unstitched cloth. Since these barbs end in hooks, they hook on to one another efficiently, making a strong, but light flying wing.

There here are two sources of feather colour- pigments, and the physical structure of the feather. Many feathers are coloured by a combination of these features. Pigments are chemical compounds that absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The colours you see are those reflected back. Feathers coloured by pigments, range from crow black to canary yellow, and cardinal red.



Many colours, such as blue, are a result of feather structure. When light hits these feathers, it hits microscopic structures on the feather that act as prisms to reflect a colour.
No blue pigment is known in birds. Shimmering iridescent colours such as those found in peacocks, are caused by special structures, air bubbles, or films on feather surfaces.

These modifications interfere with the bending and scattering of light to strengthen some wavelengths, and cancel out others.

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Hydrophobic interactions

Some molecules just don’t play nicely with water. Because water is a polar molecule, it tends to stick to itself via hydrogen bonds. Other polar molecules also stick to water molecules and can mix right in, dissolv ing into the water. However, nonpolar molecules have evenly shared covalent bonds and lack the slight negative and positive charges of polar molecules. Because they’re uncharged, nonpolar molecules don’t mix well with water.

Nonpolar molecules are also called hydrophobic molecules because “hydro” means water and “phobic” means to fear.

When nonpolar molecules are placed in a watery environment, the polar mol ecules will all stick to each other and push the nonpolar molecules away. You can think of the scenario as if the polar molecules all belong to a clique that refuses to hang out with the nonpolar molecules. (The name of this clique, by the way, is the hydrophilic molecules.) Because the nonpolar molecules all get pushed together, they become associated with each other.

The interaction between nonpolar molecules is called a hydrophobic interaction.

You can easily demonstrate a hydrophobic interaction to yourself. Just go into your kitchen, put some water in a cup, and then add a little oil. Even if you stir the mixture vigorously to mix the oil into the water, as soon as you stop stirring, all the oil will gather together on top of the water.

The water molecules all stick to each other and push the oil molecules away. Hence the saying, “They get along like oil and water!”

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How viruses get into cells

Viruses attach to cells when viral proteins successfully bind to receptors on the host cell. If the viral protein has the right shape, it will tuck into the cor responding shape on the host cell receptor. You can think of viral attachment as a virus having the right key to fit into the lock on the host cell.

After the virus is attached, it may force itself into the cell by digging a hole through a cell wall slip in by fusing its envelope with the membrane of the host cell, or trick the cell into bringing it inside.

The ability of a virus to infect a host cell depends on a match between pro teins on the surface of the virus and receptors on the surface of the host cell.

The type of cells a particular virus can infect is called the host range of the virus. Because viruses can infect only cells that they can attach to with their proteins, each virus has a very specific range of hosts it can infect. In other words, each virus can infect only the host cells for which it has keys.

Some viruses have a key that works in the lock on many types of cells. These viruses have a broad host range. For example, the rabies virus can infect humans and many other mammals. On the other hand, some viruses have a key that fits into the lock on only a few cells. These viruses have a narrow host range. The HIV virus, which infects only certain cells of the human immune system, is a good example of a virus with a very narrow host range.

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The structure of viruses

The simplest viruses have just two components: a nucleic acid core and protein capsid. The nucleic acid core, which may be DNA or RNA, contains the instructions for taking over cells and making more virions, or viral par ticles. The nucleic acid is surrounded by the capsid, a protective protein coat. Each individual protein that makes up the capsid is called a capsomere.

All viruses have at least a capsid and a nucleic acid core. The core consists of one of four types of nucleic acid:

*Double-stranded DNA

*Single-stranded DNA

*Double-stranded RNA

*Single-stranded RNA

One difference between cells and viruses is that cells contain DNA and RNA. However, a single viral particle contains only DNA or RNA. Also, single stranded DNA and double-stranded RNA are commonly found in viruses, but not in cells.

In addition to the capsid and the core, some viruses have an outer membrane layer called an envelope. It’s no coincidence that the envelope of a virus is similar to the plasma membrane of a cell viruses that have envelopes steal them from their cellular victims as they leave the cell! Viral envelopes aren’t exactly the same as plasma membranes because they’ve been changed to suit the needs of the virus by the addition of viral proteins.

Once modified and adopted, the envelope helps the virus enter and exit from host cells. Viruses may also have proteins that stick out of the envelope or off the sur face of the capsid. These proteins, called spikes, help the virus attach to host cells.

Viruses come in three common shapes:

*Helical viruses have a capsid that forms a twisting helix around the nucleic acid core.

*Polyhedral viruses have a regular geometric shape. The most complex polyhedral viruses are icosahedrons with 20 faces.

*Complex viruses have separate patches of proteins, often forming unique structures or extensions on the virus.

Under the microscope, enveloped viruses appear irregular in shape. However, a helical or polyhedral capsid may be located underneath the envelope.

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