The bones are the hard structure ,Which form the rigid framework the body.
Bone is a highly vascular mineralized connective tissue consisting of cell and dense intercellular organic matrix impregnated with organic salts. The organic material mainly consist of collagen fibers and form one third of the bone.
The inorganic material mainly consist of calcium phosphate and traces of other salts. It provides hardness and rigidity to the bone and makes it radiopaque in x-ray film.

 Bone give shape and support to the body ,and resist any forms of stress.
 These provide surface for the attachment of muscle ,tendons,ligaments.
 These serve as levers for muscular actions.
 Bone marrow manufactures blood cells.
 Bone store 97%of the body calcium and phosphorus.
 Bone marrow contains reticuloendothelial cells which are phagocytic in nature and take part in immune responses of the body.
 The skull ,vertebral column and thoracic cage protect brain , spinal cord and thoracic and some abdominal viscera ,respectively.
 some bones around the nose contain large cavities filled with air (paranasal air sinuses which affect the timber of the voice).


According to shape
According to the structure
According to the development


Depending on the size and shape. the bone are classified into 7 type.
• Long Bones
• Short Bones
• Flat Bones
• Irregular Bones
• Pneumatic Bones
• Sesamoid Bones
• Accessory Bones

Long bones

Long bone are those in which length exceeds the breadth and thickness.
The long bone are two types.
 Typical long bones
 Miniature/short long bone

Short bones

Short bones are small in size and usually cuboidal in shape , presenting six surfaces. These bones are found in wrist (carpal bone ) and foot (tarsal bone).

Flat bones

Flat bone are flat and shallow plate-like bone.
They form boundaries of certain body cavities. the example of the flat bone frontal, parietal ,occipital ,scapula, ribs, sternum.

Irregular bones

Irregular bone are highly irregular shape ,hip bone vertebrae bone forming base of skull.

Pneumatic bones

Pneumatic bone are a variety of irregular bone which contain air filled cavity. These bones are mainly located around the nasal cavity.
Example maxilla ,frontal ,sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

Sesamoid bones

These are bony nodules found embedded in the tendons or joint capsules.they have no periosteum and ossify after birth. Ex. Patella.

Accessory bones

These bones are not always present. These may occur as ununited epiphysis developed from extra centres of ossification. Ex. Sutural or wormain bones.


Microscopically the architecture of bone may be compact or cancellous.
Compact bone Compact bone is dense in texture like ivory ,but is extremely porous. It is best developed in the cortex of the long bone.
Cancellous bone The cancellous bone is a mesh work of bony consist of interconnecting road and plates of bone called trabeculae.


According to the process of the bone development. The bones are three type.
Membranous bones are developed by membranous ossification.
Cartilaginous bone are developed by endochondral ossification.
Membrano-cartilaginous bone developed by both membranous and endochondral ossification.

Parts of growing young long bone
 Epiphysis
 Diaphysis
 Metaphysis
 Epiphysis plate

Epiphysis these are ends of long bones which ossify from secondary centers.
Diaphysis It is the elongated part of bone between the metaphysis. It develops from primary ossification center.
Metaphysis the end of diaphysis toward the epiphyseal cartilage is called metaphysis.
Epiphysis plate Epiphysial plate separates epiphysis from metaphysis. Proliferation of the cells in this cartilaginous plate is responsible for lengthwise growth of a long bone.



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Inside our body, all the cavities such as the mouth, throat, stomach, intes tines, ears, chest, and sinuses are lined with cells called epithelial cells.

These cells contain nerve endings that send impulses which the brain identifies as feelings of heat, cold, or pain.

Outside the body, the skin is the organ of feeling.

It has more than 16,000 nerve endings, which are also called receptors that detect heat or cold, and around 4 million nerve end ings that transmit feelings of pain!

Your nervous system depends on these receptors that are embedded in your skin, to sense the outside world.

Our hands, feet, and lips all have extra receptors making those areas even more sensitive, and there are actually different types of receptor cells for each type of sensation.

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Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection. It causes one and both kidneys are swell .

Pyelonephritis can be life-threatening. It can be infected by bacteria or virus.

The main function of kidney remove waste and take extra water from blood.

Kidney is a part of urinary system, which makes liquid waste (Urine) and remove it from your body.
Kidney filter the blood and make urine.

Ureters carry urine from kidney or through the bladder.
Bladder hold the urine before the micturition.

Urethra carries urine from your bladder to outside your body.
Bacteria entered through urethra begin the multiplying and spread up to the bladder and travel by ureter and they reach kidney or infected the kidney.


Symptoms are showing aproximetly within two days of infection.
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Vomiting
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Fishy smelling urine
• Frequent urination
• Pus and blood in the urine
• Burning and painful urination

Infection complication

• Kidney damage
• Severe infection
• Septicaemia
• Problem in pregnancy


E. Coli a most common bacteria which is responsible for this. And other bacteria and virus can cause urinary infection.
This is rare that the bacteria enter skin and travel in the blood and reach the kidney.


• Rene Laennec – Stethoscope
• Alexander Fleming – Penicillin
• Friedrich Miescher – RNA
• Charles Laveran – Microbes of malaria
• William Harvey – Blood circulation
• G. A. Gerhad Henson – Bacteria of Leprosy
• Edward Jenner – Vaccination
• Charles Landersteiner – Rh factor in blood
• Eugen stainak – Sex Hormone
• Antoine van Leeuwenhoek – Sperm
• Barcroft – Spleen function
• Edward calvin Kendall – Thyroxin
• Henry Turner – Turner’s syndrome
• Wilhelm conrad Roentgen – X- Ray’s
• David Hubel – Visual system
• Roger Guillenin – Neuro Hormones
• James Watson and Francis crick – DNA structure
• Alec Jeffreys – DNA Fingerprinting
• Willem Einthoven – Electrocardiogram
• Jonas Salk – Polio vaccine
• Robert koch – TB Bacteria
• Leeuwenhoek – Bacteria
• Eduard Buchner Zymase , the first enzyme
• August Roesel Von Rosenhof – Amoeba
• Paul winchell – Artificial heart
• Karl Lohmann – ATP
• Marcello Malpighi – Blood Cappilaries
• Paul Morawitz – Blood Caugulation explain
• Luc Montagnier – HIV
• Bayliss and Starling – Hormones
• Camillo Golgi – Golgibodies
• Eugene Dubois – Evolution of man
• Keith parter – Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Robert hooke – Cell
• Robert brown Discovered, Nucleus
• Weismann & Strasbnrger Discovered Meiosis
• T. H. Morgan Discovered Sex – linkage in Drosophila
• A. V. Leeuwenhoek Discovered compound microscope
• Schleiden and Schwann – Cell Theory
• Dmitri Ivonovsky Discovered virus
• Robert koch – Cholera Bacteria
• Hugo von mohl – Cell division
• Walther Flemming – Chromosomes
• Albert von kolliker – Mitochondria
• Jan Baptist van Helmont – Photosynthesis



EMPHYSEMA – Medical condition 002


Emphysema is a lungs is develops after many years of continue smoking. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are relate to a group of lung disease that known as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Emphysema is a condition which is damage the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung. Alveoli are small, thin-walled air sacs. This is located in the end of the bronchial tubes deep inside the lungs.

A normal lungs is consist of about 300 million alveoli. when you are take a breath in the air and alveoli stretch drawing oxygen in and transporting it to the blood. When you exhale, the alveoli shrink, and carbon dioxide out of the body.

The alveoli and lung tissue are destroyed when the emphysema is develops .The tubes collapse and cause an Obstruction that trap air inside the lungs sometimes are fewer alveoli, less oxygen will be transport into the bloodstream.


Any types of smoke such as cigarette, cigar is a major cause of emphysema. if you are inhel this types smoke, and you will suffer chronic diseases.


●Shortness of breath during physical activity.
• Coughing and wheezing.
• Long term mucus production.
• Fatigue


• Pulmonary Rehabilitation
• Surgery and lung transplant
• Oxygen therapy


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A Deadly tumor is called brain cancer. they grows sharply and often strike or mob healthy areas of the brain.

Tumour is either be benign and malignant.

Malignant is cancerous

Benign brain tumors have not consist cancer cells and are usually slow growing.

Brain tumors are two different types. primary or metastatic.

Primary brain tumors start within the brain.

A metastatic tumor is made when cancer cells situated elsewhere in the body break down away and travel to the brain.

For this reason, metastatic brain tumors are nearly every time malignant, while primary brain tumors may be benign or deadly.

Brain tumors are arranged in classes or categories based on where the tumor is situated , the type of tissue involved .

the tumor is benign or deadly , and other factors. If a tumor is laid down malignant.

The tumor cell is examined by a microscope to determine how malignant they are.

Based on this analysis, tumors are rated, or graded, where level of malignancy from least to most malignant.

Factors that determine the tumor grade include how quickly the cells are growing, how much blood is supplying the cells, the presence of dead cells in the middle of the tumor (necrosis), if the cells are finit to a specific area, and how similar the cancerous cells are not normal cells.


• Blurred vision
• Headache
• Loss of balance
• Seizures
• Tingling and stiffness


* Pineal tumor
• Astrocytomas
• Acoustic neuroma
• Choroid plexus papilloma
• Vascular tumors
• Chordomas
• Ependymomas
• Craniopharyngiomas
• Schwannomass
• Ganglioneuromas
• Meningiomas
• Glioblastoma multiforme
• Gliomas
• Oligodendroglioma
• Pituitary adenomas
• Primitive neuroectodermal


Brain tumor are remove by surgery and other way like radiation therapy and chemotherapy, target therapy.

to be continue…




• Father of Genetics Gregor Johann Mendel.
• Correct structure of DNA was first deduced by James Watson and Francis Crick (1953).
• Structure unit of DNA Gene
. Johannsen was the first person who coined the term gene in 1909.
• Unit of inheritance Gene
• Number of genes in human genome 50,000-100, 000
• Most important intermediary molecule for gene expression RNA
• Best known and most common chromosomal Abnormality – Dawn’s syndrome (trisomy21)
• Only viable monosomy in human beings Turner’s syndrome
• Most common translocation in chromosomes of human being – Robert sonian translocation
• Commonest hereditary bleeding disorder – Hemophilia
• Commonest x-linked gene disorder – Rad – green color blindness
• Most important process required for inheritance – Reproduction
• Only known condition which is Y- linked – Hairy pinna in male
• All cells in the body contain 46 chromosomes except – Gametes ( sex cells) which contain 23 chromosomes.
• Most important excretory organ of the body – Kidney
• Nephrons is the structural and functional unit of kidney
• Number of nephrons in each kidney – 1 million
• Testes is the primary sex organ in male.
• Longest duct of male reproductive system – Duct of epididymis
• ovaries is the primary sex organ in female.
• Largest accessory gland – prostate gland (male)
• Strongest smooth muscle in the body – uterine muscle
• Most sensitive part of male external genitalia Glans of penis
• Most common cancer of female reproductive system – carcinoma cervix.

to be continue..

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Erect – standing

Decubitus – patient is lying down

Supine – lying on the back

Prone – lying face down

Lateral decubitus – lying on the side

Right decubitus – lying on the right side

Left decubitus – lying on the left side

Extension – when the angle of joint increases.

Flexion –when the angle of joint decreases.

Abduction – refers to the movement away from the midline

Adduction – refers to the movement towards the midline

Rotation – angulation of a body part at particular point or its own axis.

Pronation – movement of hand and forearm in which the palm is moved from facing anteriorly to posteriorly.

Supination – reverse of pronation.

these are the position which is used during the x ray examination and many other medical field to determine the position of the body.

many positions are still remaining which will be added later.


NOTE – if you need any more information about any subject whether it is for your child or sibling’s school project, or for a friend or for your knowledge, you can contact us or send mail or by commenting on any of our posts. we will be very happy to help you.