ENDOCRINOLOGY in short and if we get more information then we’ll update this post.
1) ADRENAL GLAND
- Adrenaline hormone
- Cortisol hormone
- Steroid hormone
Action of the adrenalin include increasing the heart rate ,increasing blood pressure , expending the air passage of the lunge entering of the pupil in the eye.
Increases the gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Inhibitory effect on insulin which stop transport of glucose into the cells
Cortisol has diurnal variation.
No diurnal change In cushings syndrome.
Steroid hormones play an important role in –
Carbohydrate regulation (glucocorticoids)
Mineral balance (mineralocorticoide)
Reproductive function (gonadal steroids)
Steroid play a important role in inflammatory responses stress responses bone metabolism, cardiovascular fitness, behavior
2) THYMUS GLAND
A pink gland with two lobes located in the thoracic cavity posterior to the sternum.
It is large during the child hood and puberty but shrinks during adulthood.
Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T Cells which are an important part of the immune system.
Thymosin also assists in the development of B Cells to plasma cell to produce antibodies.
Over production of thymosin- Lymphocytosis
Insulin is the only hormone that reduce blood glucose levels and it does this by activating the glucose transport mechanism and glucose utilizing metabolic pathway in different tissues of the body.
Hormone -androgen (testosterone)
- Growth development and maintenance of male reproductive organs.
- Sexual differentiation and secondary sexual characteristics.
- Male pattern of aggressive behavior.
- pubertal transformation.
- Enlargement of testes ,penis and scrotum.
- Pubic and axillary hair.
- Bone growth
- RBC mass increase
- Skeletal muscle mass increase
- Larynx enlarges -deeping increase
- Development of beard.
Hormone – Estrogens and progesterone
- Maturation growth and development of the reproductive organs
- Stimulation of normal physiological process of the tubular reproductive tract.
- Growth of the uterine tube
- Development of the endometrial lining of the uterus
- Increase the vascularity of the uterus
- Induction of the behavioral estrus
- Dilation of the cervix liquefaction of mucous plug.
- Under the influence of the estrogens the uterus is less susceptible to infection.
6) THYROID GLAND
Function of thyroid gland-
- Role in growth
- It has role in development
- It stimulate heart rate and contraction.
- Stimulate synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates
- It encreases vit. Requirements.
Function of thyroid hormone
- Maturation of bone
- Maturation of skeletal system
- Maturation of nerves in CNS
- Regulation of growth hormone
- Regulation of body temperature
- Generation of heat
- Metabolic function
- It influence mood and behaviour
Disorders of thyroid gland – Hypothyroidism
Function of PTH
Bone Parathyroid hormone stimulates the release of calcium from large calcium stores in the bone into the bloodstream.
This increases bone destruction and decreases the formation of new bone.
Kidney Pth reduces loss of calcium in urine.
Pth stimulate the production of active vitamin D in the kidney.
Intestine pth indirectly increases calcium absorption from food in the intestine via its effects on vitamin D metabolism.
7) PITUITARY GLAND
Function Stimulate water reabsorption by kidney.
Function Stimulate uterine muscle contraction release of milk by mammary gland.
Function Stimulate thyroid gland.
Function Stimulate adrenal cortex.
Function Milk production
Function Cell division , protein synthesis ,and bone growth.
Function Unknown function in humans regulates skin color in lower vertebrates.