Understanding the concept of LIGHT SOUND

SOUND

Anything we hear around us is not is sound but vibration of particles. Vibration is a type of disturbance which propagates by particles of medium.

Sound is not travel but it is a wave that is transferred by particles in the form of vibrations (particles can only transfer the vibrations by one particle to second and 2nd to 3rd and so on by remain their positions).

Without particles, sound has no existence. Sound not travel in space because there are no particles in space. , so we transfer the information in form of signal in space.

Speed of sound in different mediums

Air – 343m/sec

Water – 1437m/sec

Glass – 4540m/sec

Iron – 5120m/sec

According to this, as the medium density increases sound speed also increases.

Effect of temperature- As temperature increases speed of sound increases.

The normal range of sound to hear anything for human is 20hz to 20000hz.

But minimum range of sound which a human can hear is 12hz and maximum is 28000hz.

The sound created by a volcano eruption in 1883 is in range of 180decibel and it can be heard up to 3000 miles (ca. 4,828 km).

the sound created by the explosion of nuclear bomb is in range of 240 to 280+ decibels.

So, we cannot imagine what will be the loudest sound.

LIGHT

Light energy is a traveling Photon which is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Photon is a bundle of energy. 

Speed of light is 3 × 10⁸m/sec. in vacuum. 

As dense as the medium the speed of light will decrease.

Nature of light-

Light has dual nature

1- wave nature- we consider the light have wave nature because light has the property of diffraction, refraction, and interference etc.

2-particle nature- light has particle nature because it emits electrons when it strikes on metal surface called Photoelectric effect.

mass of photon is zero.

Formation of light energy -when we provide heat to an object it is start to emit photons.

The number of emitting photons, depending on temperature of the object. 

Photon having a special property that they can never exist in stable form. They start to travel since their formation.

Intensity of light inversely proportional to square of source distance.

7 properties of light – 

reflection, diffraction ,refraction ,polarization, interference ,dispersion, scattering.

Visible light is made up of seven colors known as VIBGYOR.

V – Violet 

I – Indigo

B – blue

G – green 

Y – yellow 

O – orange 

R – red

Where red light has the longest wavelength while violet light has the shortest wavelength.

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SUN – A BRIEF INTRODUCTION

The sun is a star, a hot ball of glowing gases at the heart of our solar system. It is the largest object and contains approximately 99% of the total solar system mass.

Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit. 

The Sun’s outer visible layer is called the photosphere and has a temperature of 6,000°C (11,000°F). 

the sun’s visible surface sometimes has dark sunspots, which are areas of intense magnetic activity that can lead to solar explosion.

The Sun’s period of rotation at the surface varies from approximately 25 days at the equator to 36 days at the poles. Deep down, below the convective zone, everything appears to rotate with a period of 27 days

Solar energy is created deep within the core of the Sun. It is here that the temperature (15,000,000° C; 27,000,000° F) and pressure (340 billion times Earth’s air pressure at sea level) is so intense that nuclear reactions take place

The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurorae. Though it is special to us, there are billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy.

Average diameter: 864,000 miles, about 109 times the size of the Earth.

Mass: 1.989e+30

Rotation period at equator: About 27 days.

Rotation period at poles: About 36 days.

mean density: 1.410 (gm/cm^3)

Surface temperature: 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

Composition: Hydrogen, helium, Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, iron, silicon, magnesium, sulfur etc

to be continue……

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DO THINGS HAVE COLOUR ? How can we see colours

Anything we see around us that have colours are not actually colours but photons travels with different frequencies and our eyes detect that frequencies in form of colours.

How photons travels with different frequencies-

Electrons are revolve around the nucleus in different shells in an atom.

Every particular electron revolve in an particular shell. When photon collide with electrons, the electron absorb the energy of photon.

By absorbing the photon energy, the electron goes to the next energy shell for a short time of period (10^-8 sec)
The electron goes to the next energy shell called excited state.

After 10^-8 sec in excited state, the electron come back to it’s original energy shell called ground state.
When electron come back to ground state, it release the energy of photon which is absorbed by it. It release photon in a particular frequency range. And the whole process is continuous.

The released photon strike on our eyes. The light receptors in eyes can transmit the message to brain and brain can detect the this in form of colour and make an image of that object so that we can see an object which has colour.

There are more than 10 million colour detected.

Black and white are not colour because black is form when all the light Ray’s or all the photons can be absorbed and white is formed when all the light Ray’s are reflected from the surface.

Anything which is transparent can pass all the light Ray’s through it and would be invisible if 100% light rays can pass through it which strike on it.
The range of visible light is 380 – 700nanometer(nm).
And all the colours we can see have in the range of visible light.

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IMPORTANT POINTS ON HUMAN BODY – PART 2

• Father of Genetics Gregor Johann Mendel.
• Correct structure of DNA was first deduced by James Watson and Francis Crick (1953).
• Structure unit of DNA Gene
. Johannsen was the first person who coined the term gene in 1909.
• Unit of inheritance Gene
• Number of genes in human genome 50,000-100, 000
• Most important intermediary molecule for gene expression RNA
• Best known and most common chromosomal Abnormality – Dawn’s syndrome (trisomy21)
• Only viable monosomy in human beings Turner’s syndrome
• Most common translocation in chromosomes of human being – Robert sonian translocation
• Commonest hereditary bleeding disorder – Hemophilia
• Commonest x-linked gene disorder – Rad – green color blindness
• Most important process required for inheritance – Reproduction
• Only known condition which is Y- linked – Hairy pinna in male
• All cells in the body contain 46 chromosomes except – Gametes ( sex cells) which contain 23 chromosomes.
• Most important excretory organ of the body – Kidney
• Nephrons is the structural and functional unit of kidney
• Number of nephrons in each kidney – 1 million
• Testes is the primary sex organ in male.
• Longest duct of male reproductive system – Duct of epididymis
• ovaries is the primary sex organ in female.
• Largest accessory gland – prostate gland (male)
• Strongest smooth muscle in the body – uterine muscle
• Most sensitive part of male external genitalia Glans of penis
• Most common cancer of female reproductive system – carcinoma cervix.

to be continue..

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ATOM – smallest unit of life

INDEX

  • 1.INTRODUCTION

  • 2. PARTS OF AN ATOM

  • 2.1 NEUTRON

  • 2.2 PROTON

  • 2.3 ELECTRON

  • 3 NUCLEUS

  • 4. CHARGE OF AN ATOM

  • 5. SHAPE, SIZE AND MASS OF AN ATOM

  • 6. STABILITY

  • 7. FISSION AND FUSION OF AN ATOM

INTRODUCTION

Atom is smallest unit of matter. Every state of matter contain atoms and atom contain electrons, protons and neutrons.

According to some theories the protons, electrons and neutrons are made up by small particles called quarks. And quarks are supposed to be smallest particles

NEUTRON

neutron is a part of nucleus and have no charge so it is neutral.

Only hydrogen atom not have any neutron.

PROTON

proton is a positive charge particle stable in nucleus with neutrons

ELECTRON

electron is a negative charge particle revolve around the nucleus. the electron would not be stable in nucleus because it does not emit enough energy to be a part of nucleus.

NUCLEUS

Protons and neutrons are in stable state in nucleus and the electrons revolve around the nucleus.

Neutrons and protons together called nucleons

The number of proton is called atomic number and the sum of number of proton, neutrons called mass number.

CHARGE OF AN ATOM

Protons have positive charge and electrons have negative charge so electrons attracted toward nucleus by electromagnetic force while neutrons are neutral.so that electrons revolve around the nucleus.

An atom is neutral in charge because the number of protons and electrons in atom are equal.

If the number of electrons are greater then protons, the atom have negative charge or if the electrons are removed from atom, the atom is positively charged. such charged atoms are called ions.

SHAPE, SIZE & MASS OF AN ATOM

The approximate diameter of atom is 1 x 10^-10m to 5 x 10^-10m and aproximate diameter of neucleus of atom is 1 x 10^-15m.

the shape of an atom is not perfectly sphere but is ellipsoid. mostly atom’s shape atom’s shape is prolate or oblate.

Mass of proton = 1.67262 × 10 −27 kg

mass of electron = 9.11 x 10 -28 kg

mass of neutron = 1.674×10−27 kg

About 99.9% mass of an atom contains in nucleus.

STABILITY OF AN ATOM

Mostly stable atoms have equal number of protons and neutrons. The electrons present in outer shell of atom called valence electron.

Inert gases have most stable configuration because the outermost shell of inert gases is completely filled. The valency shell with numbers of electron 2, 8, 18, 32,… are supposed be most stable.

According to another theory, atoms are most stable with number of neucleons 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126. These numbers are also called magic numbers.

FISSION AND FUSION OF AN ATOM

If larger nucleus splits into smaller nuclei, called nuclear fission or if two smaller nuclei combine to make larger nuclei, called nuclear fusion (e.g. in sun, Hydrogen converts into Helium by nuclear fusion).

TO BE CONTINUE…….

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ANATOMICAL POSITIONS

Erect – standing

Decubitus – patient is lying down

Supine – lying on the back

Prone – lying face down

Lateral decubitus – lying on the side

Right decubitus – lying on the right side

Left decubitus – lying on the left side

Extension – when the angle of joint increases.

Flexion –when the angle of joint decreases.

Abduction – refers to the movement away from the midline

Adduction – refers to the movement towards the midline

Rotation – angulation of a body part at particular point or its own axis.

Pronation – movement of hand and forearm in which the palm is moved from facing anteriorly to posteriorly.

Supination – reverse of pronation.

these are the position which is used during the x ray examination and many other medical field to determine the position of the body.

many positions are still remaining which will be added later.

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THE PERIODIC TABLE

here is a list of 118 element of periodic table

1
2
H
He
Hydrogen
Helium
3Lilithium
4Beberyllium
5BBoron
6CCarbon
7NNitrogen
8OOxygen
9FFluorine
10NeNeon
11NaSodium
12MgMagnesium
13AlAluminium
14SiSilicon
15Pphosphor
16SSulfur
17ClChlorine
18ArArgon
19KPotassium
20CaCalcium
21ScScandium
22TiTitanium
23VVanadium
24CrChromium
25Mnmanganese
26FeIron
27CoCobalt
28NiNickel
29CuCopper
30ZnZinc
31GaGallium
32GeGermanium
33AsArsenic
34SeSelenium
35BrBromine
36KrKrypton
37RbRubidium
38SrStrontium
39YYttrium
40ZrZirconium
41NbNiobium
42MoMolybdenum
43TcTechnetium
44RuRuthenium
45RhRhodium
46PdPalladium
47AgSilver
48CdCadmium
49InIndium
50SnTin
51SbAntimony
52TeTellurium
53IIodine
54XeXenon
55CsCesium
56BaBarium
57LaLanthanum
58CeCerium
59PrPraseodymium
60NdNeodymium
61PmPromethium
62SmSamarium
63EuEuropium
64GdGadolinium
65TbTerbium
66DyDysprosium
67HoHolmium
68ErErbium
69TmThulium
70YbYtterbium
71LuLutetium
72HfHafnium
73TaTantalum
74WTungsten
75ReRhenium
76OsOsmium
77IrIridium
78PtPlatinum
79AuGold
80HgMercury
81TlThallium
82PbLead
83BiBismuth
84PoPolonium
85AtAstatine
86RnRadon
87FrFrancium
88RaRadium
89AcActinium
90ThThorium
91PaProtactinium
92UUranium
93NpNeptunium
94PuPlutonium
95AmAmericium
96CmCurium
97BkBerkelium
98CfCalifornium
99EsEinsteinium
100FmFermium
101MdMendelevium
102NoNobelium
103LrLawrencium
104RfRutherfordium
105DbDubnium
106SgSeaborgium
107BhBohrium
108HsHassium
109MtMeitnerium
110DsDarmstadtium
111RgRoentgenium
112CnCopernicium
113NhNihonium
114FlFlerovium
115McMoscovium
116LvLivermorium
117TsTennessine
118OgOganeshttps://amzn.to/3kzdalfson

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