ELECTICITY

All atoms contain charged protons and charged electrons. Electricity is a flow of charged electrons from one place to a different. Once electrons area unit transferred between substances, it will cause a buildup of charge in one place and electric charge in another generally with powerful results.

Lightning
Inside storm clouds small particies of ice rub against one another and electrons area unit transferred between particles. This ends up in a buildup of charge at all-time low of the cloud. If this charge becomes massive enough, it will jump between clouds or a cloud and therefore the ground during a large bolt of electricity, referred to as lightning.

Static electricity
When electrical charge builds up in one place it’s referred to as electricity. If you rub your hair on a balloon, electrons area unit transferred from your hair to the balloon. This offers your hair a electric charge and therefore the balloon a charge. Particles with opposite charge attracted towards one another therefore your hair can attracts the balloon.

Current electricity
The electricity that powers our homes is thought as dynamic electricity. It flows from power plants to our homes and offices on long electrical cables that area unit made up of conducting materials. These cables supported by towers that protected against this by ceramic insulators.

Using electricity
The electricity we have a tendency to use around our homes and to power our gadgets is created in many ways that. It will be generated in large power plants situated remote. On a smaller scale, things like flashlights and cell phones will be supercharged by batteries that offer electricity whenever we would like.

Storing electricity
Batteries store energy in chemicals. once a battery is place into a circuit it makes a current flow round the circuit. Batteries terribly helpful for tiny electrical devices that don’t would like a lot of power, or for devices that need to be transportable.

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GRAVITY


Gravity is a force of attraction between 2 objects. The lot of mass the objects have and therefore the nearer they’re to every different, the larger the force of attraction.

Earth’s gravity is that the attraction felt most powerfully on the planet: it’s what keeps us on the bottom and keeps us from floating off into area. In fact, we tend to pull on Earth the maximum amount as Earth pulls on us.

Gravity conjointly keeps the planets in orbit round the sun, and therefore the moon around Earth. Without it, every planet would travel in a very line off into area.

The best approach scientists will make a case for gravity is with the overall Theory of relativity theory, developed by physicist in 1915. In step with this theory, gravity is truly caused by area being distorted around objects with mass. As objects travel through the distorted area, they modify direction. So, in step with Einstein, gravity isn’t a force at all!



Gravity and orbits
Newton used his understanding of gravity and motion to figure out however planets, together with Earth, stay in their orbits round the sun. He complete that while not gravity Earth would travel in a very line through area. The force of gravity pulls Earth toward the sun, keeping it in its orbit. Earth is continually falling toward the sun, however ne’er gets any nearer. If Earth over-involved or stopped moving, it might be the sun!

Law of Falling Bodies
Gravity pulls a lot of powerfully on heavier objects-but heavier objects would like a lot of force to create them speed up than lighter ones. Stargazer was the primary person to comprehend, in 1590, that any 2 objects born along ought to speed up at identical rate and hit the bottom along. we tend to use lighter objects falling a lot of slowly because air resistance slows them a lot of.

Law of Universal Gravitation
In 1687, English mortal physicist came up together with his Law of Universal Gravitation. It states that any 2 objects attract one another with a force that depends on the plenty of the objects and therefore the distance between them.

Mass and weight
Mass is that the quantity of matter, object contains, that stays identical where it’s. it’s measured in kilograms (kg). Weight may be a force caused by gravity. The a lot of mass associate object has and therefore the stronger the gravity, the larger its weight. Weight is measured in newtons (N).

Tides
The attractive force pull of the moon and therefore the sun cause the oceans to bulge outward. The moon’s pull on the oceans is strongest as a result of it’s nighest to Earth, and it’s the most explanation for the tides. However, at bound times of every moon, the sun’s gravity conjointly plays a job, increasing or decreasing the peak of the tides.

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ELEMENTS

Elements
A chemical that is made up of atoms of just one type is known as an element. Although all atoms are made of the same basic parts-protons, neutrons, and electrons-not all atoms are the same. It is the number of these parts that gives the atom-and the element-its properties.

Grouping elements
The number of protons in an atom of an element gives it its atomic number. Scientists arrange elements according to their atomic numbers in a chart known as the periodic table. Although each element is unique, many have similar properties. Those that share certain properties are grouped together.

Alkali metals
The first group of similar elements in the periodic table is known as the alkali metals. These elements, which include sodium and lithium, are soft and react with water, forming alkaline solutions.


Transition metals
Most of the metals we use in everyday life, such as gold, iron, and copper, are grouped together as transition metals. This group contains metals that can create magnetic fields and are good conductors of heat and electricity.

Alkaline earth metals
Metals in this group, which includes barium, calcium, magnesium, and radium, are highly reactive, although not quite as reactive as alkali metals. Alkaline earth metals are found in numerous compounds in the Earth’s crust, as well as in our bodies.


Noble gases
The six noble gases – Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, and Radon-are colorless, odorless, and usually do not react with other elements to form compounds. They are, however, used in a variety of applications, including electric lights. Most noble gases glow brightly when electricity is passed through them. Lighter-than-air helium is also used in balloons and to lift airships.

SOLAR ENERGY

Solar energy is beamy light from the Sun that is controlled employing a vary of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, liquid salt power plants and artificial chemical process.

There square measure 2 ways that we will manufacture electricity from the sun light:

*Electrical phenomenon Electricity – Uses electrical phenomenon cells that absorb the direct daylight to come up with electricity

* Solar-Thermal Electricity – Uses a reflector that contains a reflected surface that reflects the daylight onto a receiver that heats up a liquid. This hot liquid is employed to create steam that produces electricity.

Electrical phenomenon Electricity
Solar panels square measure connected to associate degree metal mounting system. Electrical phenomenon (PV) cells square measure created from a minimum of two semi conductor layers ,an electric charge, and a charger. As a PV cell is exposed to daylight, photons square measure mirrored, pass all through, or absorbed by the cell.

Once enough photons square measure absorbed by the negative layer of the solar cell, electrons square measure free of the negative semiconductor material. These free electrons migrate to the positive layer making a voltage differential. Once the 2 layers square measure connected to associate degree external load, the electrons flow through the circuit making electricity. The facility generated – – electrical energy (DC) is born-again to Alternate Current (AC) with the employment of inverters.

Concentrated solar energy (CSP) or star thermal technology
It utilises centered daylight and convert it into warmth heat. That heat is then channelled through a standard generator to provide electricity.

Solar collectors capture and concentrate daylight to heat a fluid that successively generates electricity. There square measure several variations within the form of the collectors. The foremost normally used square measure the parabolic troughs.

Parabolic trough power plants use a falciform, reflected trough that reflects the direct radiation onto a glass tube contain ing a fluid and also the fluid gets heated due to the concen trated radiation and also the hot steam generated is employed to rotate the rotary engine to come up with electricity. normally used fluids square measure artificial oil, liquid salt and pressurized steam.

The power generated – electrical energy (DC) is born-again to Alternate Current (AC) with the employment of inverters.

LUMINESCENT star CONCENTRATORS
A light star concentrator (LSC) could be a device that uses a skinny sheet of fabric to entice radiation over an oversized space, before leading the energy (through lumines cent emission) to cells mounted on the skinny edges of the fabric layer.


The thin sheet of fabric generally consists of a compound (such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)), doped with light species like organic dyes, quantum dots or group complexes.

What is the requirement for LSCs?
*The most motivation for implementing LSCs is to switch an oversized space of pricey star cells in a very normal flat-plate PV panel, with a less expensive different. thus there’s each a discount in each the price of the module (£/W) and also the solar energy made (€/kWh).

*A key advantage of over typical concentrating sys tems is that LSCs will collect each direct and diffuse radiation. thus trailing of the sun isn’t needed.

*LSCS square measure glorious candidates for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and for the cloudier northern climates.

Ideal LSC
*A broad absorption vary to utilize the star spectrum with efficiency.
*100 percent emission of sunshine from the fascinating light species.

*An oversized shift between the absorption and emission specification tra to cut back absorption losses.

* Long run stability.

*Challenges for LSC

*The event of LSCS aims to make a operating structure that performs near to the theoretical maximum potency.

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PLASMA- FOURTH STATE OF MATTER

From a scientific purpose of read, matter within the celebrated universe is commonly classified in terms of 4 states: solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma.
The essential distinction among solids, liquids, and gases lies within the distinction between the strength of the bonds that hold their constituent particles along.

These binding forces square measure comparatively robust in an exceedingly solid, weak in an exceedingly liquid, and basically virtually absent within the frothy state.

Whether or not a given substance is found in one in all these states depends on the random K.E. (thermal energy) of its atoms or molecules, i.e., on its temperature.

The equilibrium between this particle thermal energy and also the interparticle binding forces determines the state.

Plasma, in physics, associate degree electrically conducting medium during which there square measure roughly equal numbers of absolutely and charged particles, created once the atoms in an exceedingly gas become ionizing.

It’s generally observed because the fourth state of matter, distinct from the solid, liquid, and frothy states.



Nearly all the visible matter within the universe exists within the plasma state, occurring preponderantly during this kind within the Sun and stars and in celestial body and region. Auroras, lightning, and fastening arcs also are plasmas; plasmas exist in element and fluorescent tubes, within the crystal structure of antimonial solids, and in several alternative phenomena and objects.

The world itself is immersed in an exceedingly tenuous plasma known as the solar radiation and is enclosed by a dense plasma known as the part.

A plasma could also be created within the laboratory by heating a gas to a very heat, that causes such vigorous collisions between its atoms and molecules that electrons square measure ripped free, yielding the requisite electrons and ions. an identical method happens within stars.

In house the dominant plasma formation method is photoionization, whereby photons from daylight or visible radiation square measure absorbed by associate degree existing gas, inflicting electrons to be emitted.


Since the Sun and stars shine unceasingly, just about all the matter becomes ionizing in such cases, and also the plasma is claimed to be absolutely ionizing.

This needn’t be the case, however, for a plasma could also be solely part ionizing. A totally ionizing chemical element plasma, consisting only of electrons and protons (hydrogen nuclei), is that the most basic plasma.

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POWER

post by – CURIOUS CREATION blog – devilsangelsite.wordpress.com

Hello! As a person working in power transmission sector, I would like to share with you some of the basic things about power and it’s transmission. You can see my blog- devilsangelsite@wordpress.com

POWER :-

Power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In electrical system, it is the amount of energy transmitted or consumed per unit time. 

The S.I. unit of power is Watts, i.e., joules per second. 

P (power) is mathematically expressed as, 
P= VI where
V= system voltage & I= current flowing through the system.

POWER GENERATION :-

Power is generated at power generation centers by using resources such as coal, fuel, water, radioactive materials, renewable energy sources such as solar power, wind, tide etc.

Based on the source or raw material used for generation, power generation centers are classified into various categories such as: Thermal generation, hydro power generation, nuclear power generation, solar generation, wind energy generation, tidal energy generation etc. 

Most commonly used resources are thermal generation ( from coal) and hydro power generation (from water ). 

As bio fuel is limited and hydro power has its own limitations, so renewable energy sources are the need of the hour. So, solar power is in high demand now. 

But due to the high capital cost of initial investment and installation, it is not easy to setup solar generation centers and also the solar cells used for generation purpose has reached Maximum efficiency of 12-16% as of now. More research is being done to improve the cell efficiency to increase the power output.

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POWER TRANSMISSION :-

Power is generated at the generation centers at the Voltage level of upto 11KV due to insulation problem and considering the equipment size. 

Power is then transmitted at the level of 132KV-765KV by setting up transformers. This transmission of power is done at very high voltage to reduce the current flowing through the conductor which then reduces the conductor size and cost and transmission losses. 

Power transmission is done by power transmission sector which maintains the transportation of bulk amount of power to other transmission points and to distribution centers.

POWER DISTRIBUTION :-

After transmission of power, it is then distributed to industrial and domestic consumers through power distribution sector.



Before distribution, the Voltage level is stepped down upto 33KV level by means of step down transformers.

The distribution sector transmit power to commercial consumers at 33KV level and domestic consumers at 0.4KV level.

0.4KV is the 3-phase power that we know today. The single phase to neutral voltage of 230V is used for domestic usage purpose.

So, overall this is the process of power generation, transmission and distribution in the power sector.
Thank you for reading the post.

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FUNDAMENTAL FORCE OF NATURE

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces

Types of forces

  1. Gravitational force (between particles with mass)
  2. electromagnetic (between particles with charge/magnetism)
  3. strong nuclear force (between quarks)
  4. weak nuclear force (that changes quark types)

1. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

Gravity or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.•

On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon’s gravity causes the ocean tides.

•An invisible force that pulls objects toward each other. So, the closer objects are to each other, the stronger their gravitational pull is.

•The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe caused it to begin coalescing and forming stars and caused the stars to group together into galaxies, so gravity is responsible for many of the large-scale structures in the Universe.

•Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker as objects get further away. •

In SI units, G has the value 6.67 × 10^-11 Newtons kg^-2m².

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GRAVITY AND GRAVITATION

Difference Between Gravitation and gravity is that Gravitation can be an attractive force or repulsive force but gravity is always an attraction force.

2. ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE

•Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

•The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light.

•It is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature, together with the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

•Electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules.

•All of the light from the Sun and other sources consists of photons which are the electromagnetic force carriers. • Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun’s photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. • They are regions of reduced surface temperature caused by concentrations of magnetic field flux.

Electromagnets are very widely used in electric and electromechanical devices, including

•Motors and generators. •Transformers. •Pickups. •Relays. •Electric bells •Loudspeakers •headphones.etc

3. STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE

•In nuclear physics and particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force, and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

•At the range of 10−15 m. The strong force inherently has such a high strength that hadrons bound by the strong force can produce new massive particles.

•Thus, if hadrons are struck by high-energy particles, they give rise to new hadrons instead of emitting freely moving radiation.

•The strong interaction is mediated by the exchange of massless particles called gluons that act between quarks, antiquarks, and other gluons. As its name suggests,

•the strong force is the strongest—it’s 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic force

•(which binds electrons into atoms), 10,000 times stronger than the weak force (which governs radioactive decay), and a hundred million million million million million million (1039) times stronger than gravity.

Artificially,the energy associated with the nuclear force is partially released in nuclear power and nuclearweapons, both in uranium or plutonium-based fission weapons and in fusion weapons likethe hydrogen bomb.

4. WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE

•The weak interaction, which is also often called the weak force or weak nuclear force, is the mechanism of interaction between subatomic particles that is responsible for the radioactive decay of atoms.

•The weak interaction participates in nuclear fission, and the theory describing it

•in terms of both its behaviour and effects is sometimes called quantum flavourdynamics (QFD).

•The effective range of the weak force is limited to subatomic distances, and is less than the diameter of a proton.

• Beta decay is just one example of the weak force.

•During beta decay a neutron disappears and is replaced by a proton, an electron and a neutrino (anti-electron).

•Without the weak force, the sun would cease to exist. It is the only interaction that can change one kind of quark into another or its flavor.

• A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. •Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.

•It is the only interaction that violates P or parity-symmetry.

• A parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate. In three dimensions, it can also refer to

•the simultaneous flip in the sign of all three spatial coordinates.

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GALAXY

Post by – penserstudypoint.com

Galaxy, that have billions of stars and billions billions planets.
All these stars and planets held together by gravity and all are rotating even a galaxy can rotate.

Milky way galaxy:- We are living in Milky Way galaxy. All the stars that are visible in the sky are in milky way and our sun is a part of these stars.

There are billions of galaxies in the universe. Every Galaxy have different shape and size.
The shape of galaxies are like Spiral galaxy, elliptical galaxy, irregular galaxy.

Aur Galaxy, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy.

Visible galaxies from earth:- Through billion of galaxies, only three galaxies can be seen from earth. One of them is andromeda galaxy, which is 2.2 million light year away and it is the nearest galaxy to us.

According to scientists, clumps of dust and gases joined together to form stars planets and then a galaxy. That’s why most of the stars and planets are made of gases.

The Milky Way is a huge Whirlpool shape galaxy have billions of stars, dust and gases. Even light can take 100000 years to cross it from one end to another.

Some scientists thinks that there is a super massive black hole in the centre of our galaxy and the revolutions of that black hole are not so fast. That’s why milky way is stable.

Our solar system that have Sun, planets, etc. is only a tiny part of Milky Way galaxy and the milky way is a tiny part of the universe.

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Understanding the concept of LIGHT SOUND

SOUND

Anything we hear around us is not is sound but vibration of particles. Vibration is a type of disturbance which propagates by particles of medium.

Sound is not travel but it is a wave that is transferred by particles in the form of vibrations (particles can only transfer the vibrations by one particle to second and 2nd to 3rd and so on by remain their positions).

Without particles, sound has no existence. Sound not travel in space because there are no particles in space. , so we transfer the information in form of signal in space.

Speed of sound in different mediums

Air – 343m/sec

Water – 1437m/sec

Glass – 4540m/sec

Iron – 5120m/sec

According to this, as the medium density increases sound speed also increases.

Effect of temperature- As temperature increases speed of sound increases.

The normal range of sound to hear anything for human is 20hz to 20000hz.

But minimum range of sound which a human can hear is 12hz and maximum is 28000hz.

The sound created by a volcano eruption in 1883 is in range of 180decibel and it can be heard up to 3000 miles (ca. 4,828 km).

the sound created by the explosion of nuclear bomb is in range of 240 to 280+ decibels.

So, we cannot imagine what will be the loudest sound.

LIGHT

Light energy is a traveling Photon which is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Photon is a bundle of energy. 

Speed of light is 3 × 10⁸m/sec. in vacuum. 

As dense as the medium the speed of light will decrease.

Nature of light-

Light has dual nature

1- wave nature- we consider the light have wave nature because light has the property of diffraction, refraction, and interference etc.

2-particle nature- light has particle nature because it emits electrons when it strikes on metal surface called Photoelectric effect.

mass of photon is zero.

Formation of light energy -when we provide heat to an object it is start to emit photons.

The number of emitting photons, depending on temperature of the object. 

Photon having a special property that they can never exist in stable form. They start to travel since their formation.

Intensity of light inversely proportional to square of source distance.

7 properties of light – 

reflection, diffraction ,refraction ,polarization, interference ,dispersion, scattering.

Visible light is made up of seven colors known as VIBGYOR.

V – Violet 

I – Indigo

B – blue

G – green 

Y – yellow 

O – orange 

R – red

Where red light has the longest wavelength while violet light has the shortest wavelength.

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DO THINGS HAVE COLOUR ? How can we see colours

Anything we see around us that have colours are not actually colours but photons travels with different frequencies and our eyes detect that frequencies in form of colours.

How photons travels with different frequencies-

Electrons are revolve around the nucleus in different shells in an atom.

Every particular electron revolve in an particular shell. When photon collide with electrons, the electron absorb the energy of photon.

By absorbing the photon energy, the electron goes to the next energy shell for a short time of period (10^-8 sec)
The electron goes to the next energy shell called excited state.

After 10^-8 sec in excited state, the electron come back to it’s original energy shell called ground state.
When electron come back to ground state, it release the energy of photon which is absorbed by it. It release photon in a particular frequency range. And the whole process is continuous.

The released photon strike on our eyes. The light receptors in eyes can transmit the message to brain and brain can detect the this in form of colour and make an image of that object so that we can see an object which has colour.

There are more than 10 million colour detected.

Black and white are not colour because black is form when all the light Ray’s or all the photons can be absorbed and white is formed when all the light Ray’s are reflected from the surface.

Anything which is transparent can pass all the light Ray’s through it and would be invisible if 100% light rays can pass through it which strike on it.
The range of visible light is 380 – 700nanometer(nm).
And all the colours we can see have in the range of visible light.

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