Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection. It causes one and both kidneys are swell .

Pyelonephritis can be life-threatening. It can be infected by bacteria or virus.

The main function of kidney remove waste and take extra water from blood.

Kidney is a part of urinary system, which makes liquid waste (Urine) and remove it from your body.
Kidney filter the blood and make urine.

Ureters carry urine from kidney or through the bladder.
Bladder hold the urine before the micturition.

Urethra carries urine from your bladder to outside your body.
Bacteria entered through urethra begin the multiplying and spread up to the bladder and travel by ureter and they reach kidney or infected the kidney.


Symptoms are showing aproximetly within two days of infection.
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Vomiting
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Fishy smelling urine
• Frequent urination
• Pus and blood in the urine
• Burning and painful urination

Infection complication

• Kidney damage
• Severe infection
• Septicaemia
• Problem in pregnancy


E. Coli a most common bacteria which is responsible for this. And other bacteria and virus can cause urinary infection.
This is rare that the bacteria enter skin and travel in the blood and reach the kidney.


• Rene Laennec – Stethoscope
• Alexander Fleming – Penicillin
• Friedrich Miescher – RNA
• Charles Laveran – Microbes of malaria
• William Harvey – Blood circulation
• G. A. Gerhad Henson – Bacteria of Leprosy
• Edward Jenner – Vaccination
• Charles Landersteiner – Rh factor in blood
• Eugen stainak – Sex Hormone
• Antoine van Leeuwenhoek – Sperm
• Barcroft – Spleen function
• Edward calvin Kendall – Thyroxin
• Henry Turner – Turner’s syndrome
• Wilhelm conrad Roentgen – X- Ray’s
• David Hubel – Visual system
• Roger Guillenin – Neuro Hormones
• James Watson and Francis crick – DNA structure
• Alec Jeffreys – DNA Fingerprinting
• Willem Einthoven – Electrocardiogram
• Jonas Salk – Polio vaccine
• Robert koch – TB Bacteria
• Leeuwenhoek – Bacteria
• Eduard Buchner Zymase , the first enzyme
• August Roesel Von Rosenhof – Amoeba
• Paul winchell – Artificial heart
• Karl Lohmann – ATP
• Marcello Malpighi – Blood Cappilaries
• Paul Morawitz – Blood Caugulation explain
• Luc Montagnier – HIV
• Bayliss and Starling – Hormones
• Camillo Golgi – Golgibodies
• Eugene Dubois – Evolution of man
• Keith parter – Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Robert hooke – Cell
• Robert brown Discovered, Nucleus
• Weismann & Strasbnrger Discovered Meiosis
• T. H. Morgan Discovered Sex – linkage in Drosophila
• A. V. Leeuwenhoek Discovered compound microscope
• Schleiden and Schwann – Cell Theory
• Dmitri Ivonovsky Discovered virus
• Robert koch – Cholera Bacteria
• Hugo von mohl – Cell division
• Walther Flemming – Chromosomes
• Albert von kolliker – Mitochondria
• Jan Baptist van Helmont – Photosynthesis



EMPHYSEMA – Medical condition 002


Emphysema is a lungs is develops after many years of continue smoking. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are relate to a group of lung disease that known as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Emphysema is a condition which is damage the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung. Alveoli are small, thin-walled air sacs. This is located in the end of the bronchial tubes deep inside the lungs.

A normal lungs is consist of about 300 million alveoli. when you are take a breath in the air and alveoli stretch drawing oxygen in and transporting it to the blood. When you exhale, the alveoli shrink, and carbon dioxide out of the body.

The alveoli and lung tissue are destroyed when the emphysema is develops .The tubes collapse and cause an Obstruction that trap air inside the lungs sometimes are fewer alveoli, less oxygen will be transport into the bloodstream.


Any types of smoke such as cigarette, cigar is a major cause of emphysema. if you are inhel this types smoke, and you will suffer chronic diseases.


●Shortness of breath during physical activity.
• Coughing and wheezing.
• Long term mucus production.
• Fatigue


• Pulmonary Rehabilitation
• Surgery and lung transplant
• Oxygen therapy


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• Father of Genetics Gregor Johann Mendel.
• Correct structure of DNA was first deduced by James Watson and Francis Crick (1953).
• Structure unit of DNA Gene
. Johannsen was the first person who coined the term gene in 1909.
• Unit of inheritance Gene
• Number of genes in human genome 50,000-100, 000
• Most important intermediary molecule for gene expression RNA
• Best known and most common chromosomal Abnormality – Dawn’s syndrome (trisomy21)
• Only viable monosomy in human beings Turner’s syndrome
• Most common translocation in chromosomes of human being – Robert sonian translocation
• Commonest hereditary bleeding disorder – Hemophilia
• Commonest x-linked gene disorder – Rad – green color blindness
• Most important process required for inheritance – Reproduction
• Only known condition which is Y- linked – Hairy pinna in male
• All cells in the body contain 46 chromosomes except – Gametes ( sex cells) which contain 23 chromosomes.
• Most important excretory organ of the body – Kidney
• Nephrons is the structural and functional unit of kidney
• Number of nephrons in each kidney – 1 million
• Testes is the primary sex organ in male.
• Longest duct of male reproductive system – Duct of epididymis
• ovaries is the primary sex organ in female.
• Largest accessory gland – prostate gland (male)
• Strongest smooth muscle in the body – uterine muscle
• Most sensitive part of male external genitalia Glans of penis
• Most common cancer of female reproductive system – carcinoma cervix.

to be continue..

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