10 Characteristics of a Mentally Strong Person

We all face times in our lives where our emotional endurance is put to the test. A poisonous friend or colleague, a dead-end career, or a strained friendship are all possibilities. Whatever the challenge, you must be strong, see it from a different perspective, and take decisive steps if you are to overcome it. It appears to be easy. Good friends, good work, and good relationships are all things we want.

But it isn’t.

Mentally healthy people aren’t born with the emotional muscles they need to confront their anxiety, overcome self-doubt, and take constructive steps. Through dedicated practice, they learned the skills that help them control their emotions, feelings, and behaviour.

It’s difficult to be physically tough when you’re trapped. Only the most emotionally strong people possess the extra grit, daring, and spunk needed to crack the mould and lead a brave new path. Building mental strength takes a lot of hard work and commitment, but it’s the key to your greatest potential. All of our life experiences make us stronger and better people.

Mentally strong people have good routines. They can control their desires, feelings, and actions in ways that position them for life success. Being optimistic, taking control of your own life and not feeling sorry for the situations we can not control are some of the characteristics that mentally strong people possess.

  • They embrace change:
    A mentally strong person is flexible and adaptive. They know that the fear of change is one of the major threat to their success and happiness. They look for change that is hiding just around the corner, and they form a plan of action for changes when they occur.

  • They focus on things they can control:
    If you are mentally strong, you try to stay productive and effective by focusing on the things you have control over. Instead of wasting energy on worrying about the difficult times, you invest your efforts into preparing for it the best you can.

  • They set healthy boundaries for themselves:
    If you need to grow, you need to create a healthy emotional and physical environment for yourself. A mentally strong person doesn’t want anyone to go over the boundaries they’ve developed, and they respectfully but firmly inform people of those boundaries.

  • They learn from their mistakes:
    Mentally healthy people don’t try to hide their mistakes or justify their actions. They learn from their mistakes and become a better version of themselves.

  • They see difficulties as opportunities:
    Every obstacle and every problem you face is an opportunity for you to grow. People usually get annoyed by difficult situations, but mentally strong people accept those challenges and become better.

  • They don’t let anyone limit their joy…
    You are no longer the master of your happiness if your sense of joy and fulfilment comes from comparing yourself to others. When emotionally tough people are proud of what they do, they will not allow others’ views or successes to diminish their pride.

  • …they don’t limit the joy of others:
    Mentally tough people don’t judge others and understand that everyone has something valuable to contribute, and they don’t need to put others down to feel good for themselves.

  • They try to improve their skills instead of showing them off:
    People, in general, want acceptance from others. Mentally strong people, on the other hand, focus on improving their skills rather than attracting attention.

  • They don’t please everyone:
    Mentally strong individuals understand that they should not have to appease them all of the time. They aren’t afraid to say no or speak up when something isn’t working. They make an effort to be kind and truthful, but they are also capable of dealing with other people’s dissatisfaction if they are unable to make them happy.

  • They don’t dwell on the past:
    Mentally strong people do not spend time reminiscing or longing for things to be different. They are aware of their experience and can articulate what they have learned from it. They don’t, though, endlessly relive painful memories or fantasise about happier times. Rather, they live in the moment and make plans for the future.

Mental endurance is not a natural trait that only a few people possess. It is possible to attain and love. Everyone has a level of mental toughness, and there’s still space for growth.

What else does it take to make a person mentally tough? How many of these 10 characteristics apply to you?





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Organisations are made of people. Without people, there can be no organisation. Where people are involved, some learning always takes place. The learning may be good or bad, but it happens all the same. In other words, organisations can and do learn, since their people can and do learn. This ability of organisations takes the shape of strategic and competitive advantage, when you begin to consider that we compete in a world full of knowledge.

Not just that, there is so much of knowledge getting added each day that it is almost impossible to compete on any other basis. For sure, financial prudence and soundness helps, but that is useful only if you can compete in the first place. It therefore makes eminent sense for organisations to create an environment where lots and lots of people learn lots and lots of new things all the time. Yes, companies do recognise this, but they do mighty little about actually getting down to making it happen in big and continuous doses.

There is another completely different advantage of competing on learning. Organisational knowledge is the sum of many parts-the sum of many minds working together. This simply cannot be replicated by the competition. Why?

The reason is quite simple. It is not possible to replicate the same set of circumstances and the same set of people existing in one company into another company. So, even if a few people leave and join forces with the competition, all is not lost. As a result, when discussions centre around return on investment, there is the invariable war cry for cost cutting. Such debates are common in corporate settings, and the outcome is invariably one sided. Since the majority of costs relate to people, let’s seize a hatchet and cut the headcount. Few, far too few, senior managers think about the incredible damage they are doing by taking such an approach. No one pauses to ponder over the loss of knowledge, human capital, and loyalty.

This is where the story of the titmouse becomes relevant. Alan Wilson, a zoologist and biochemist at the University of California at Berkeley, has been studyjng how animals learn. His research has established that there is a certain behaviour that enables primates and songbirds to share the position at the top of the table of evolved species.

Wilson’s theory for accelerated anatomical evolution describes three characteristics that enable learning:

Innovation: As individuals and as a community, they have the ability to invent new behaviour. They are capable of developing skills that enable them to exploit and take advantage of their environment in newer and better ways.

Social propagation: Skills are propagated and transferred in a proper and established way to the entire community through direct communication, not genetically.

Mobility: Individuals of the species have the ability to move around. They use this ability to a tremendous extent. They flock and move in herds, instead of keeping to themselves like hermits.

To determine whether his theory would hold water, Wilson researched studies done on the British titmouse, a small songbird commonly found in Britain. The study is extremely revealing and goes thus: During the early part of this century, milk was distributed to the doors of British country houses in bottles without tops. The cream would settle at the top of the bottles. Two species of birds the titmice and red robin, learned to siphon the cream from the bottles and get an enriched diet. This diet was obviously richer than other food the birds had. The digestive systems of these two species underwent a metabolism to cope with the extra nutrition. By the early fifties, the entire titmouse population had learnt how to pierce the aluminium caps and get to the cream. On the other hand, the red robins simply did not learn how to pierce the caps. There was a stray robin here and a stray robin there that had learned how to pierce the cap, but the species as a whole, simply failed to learn. In other words, the knowledge was simply, not passed to all red robins.

What was the difference between the two species? Basically, the titmice underwent a remarkably successful process of institutional learning, while the red robins couldn’t do so. This could not be explained as a difference in communicating ability. Both species possess the same range of ability to communicate. The difference lies in the process of social propagation-the manner in which titmice disseminate their skills between members of the community. And here is the difference. The titmice live in pairs (male and female) during spring season. They live thus until their brood grow big enough to fly and feed on their own. By the time summer arrives, the titmice can be seen hopping from one garden to another in flocks. Their propensity to flock is so powerful that the groups remain practically intact, roving the countryside. This movement pattern lasts through the summer.

On the other hand, red robins are highly territorial birds. They care for their young ones but have no ability to move as a community. They guard their turf jealously, and the only real communication that takes place is antagonistic and adversarial. Wilson concluded that birds that flock learn much faster. Moreover, everyone is able to learn. This greatly enhances their chances of survival, and speeds their evolution. The lessons for organisational learning from this study are profound, to put it mildly.

How many organisations can you find where the communication is not adversarial? Territorial behaviour and turf guarding are staple diets in corporate corridors. Most organisational structures, in fact, encourage this behaviour, albeit unknowingly. The results are the same, just think, organisational charts have boxes in which people are placed. They then have functions and divisions to make things worse. This is the perfect setting for the proliferation of bureaucracy and empire-building. No wonder Hammer and Champy describe this as “The Humpty Dumpty School of Organisational Management” in their book, “Re-engineering the Corporation”.

Mobility comes from moving people across functions and divisions. That may be the easier of the two criteria. The tough one is social transmission. As long as corporations are organised around functional concepts, social transmission will take place in an antagonistic manner. Here lies the key, then: CEOs who continue to organise their structures by function are doomed to head unlearning organisations. Hey, even the humble titmouse has figured that out. What is preventing the lofty man from emulating the titmouse?


Function of skin

1) Regulation of Body Temperature

In response to high environmental temperature or strenuous exercise, the
evaporation of sweat from the skin surface helps lower an elevated body
temperature to normal. In response to low environmental temperature,
production of sweat is decreased, which helps conserve heat. Changes in
the flow of blood to the skin also help regulate body temperature.

2) Protection

The skin covers the body and provides a physical barrier that protects
underlying tissues from shocks, physical abrasion, bacterial invasion,
dehydration, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Hair and nails also have
protective functions.

3) Sensation

The skin contains abundant nerve endings and receptors that detect
stimuli related to temperature, touch, pressure, and pain and relate the
information to the nervous system.

4) Excretion

Besides removing heat and some water from the body, sweat also is the
vehicle for excretion of a small amount of salts and several organic
compounds by integumentary glands.

5) Storage of Nutrients

Lipids are stored in adipocytes in the dermis and in adipose tissue in the
subcutaneous layer. These are made available to the body when there is
depletion which may be due to starvation.

6) Blood Reservoir

The dermis of the skin houses extensive networks of blood vessels that
carry 8 to 10% of the total blood flow in a resting adult. In moderate
exercise, skin blood flow may increase, which helps dissipate heat from
the body. During hard exercise, however, skin blood vessels constrict
(narrow) somewhat, and more blood is able to circulate to contracting

7) Synthesis of Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of closely related compounds. Synthesis of
vitamin D begins with activation of a precursor molecule in the skin by
ultraviolet (UV) rays in sunlight. Enzymes in the liver and kidneys then
modify the molecule, finally producing calcitriol; the most active form
of vitamin D. Calcitriol contributes to the homeostasis of body fluids by
aiding absorption of calcium in foods. According to the synthesis
sequence just described, vitamin D is a hormone, since it is produced in
one location in the body, transported by the blood, and then exerts its
effect in another location. In this respect, the skin may be considered an
endocrine organ.



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The EM spectrum
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation may be a kind of energy that travels in waves at a speed of 186,000 miles (300,000 km) per second, that is that the quickest speed within the universe. Totally different forms of radiation form up the EM spectrum. Every kind of radiation except actinic ray area unit invisible.

The spectrum
The EM spectrum is created of seven major varieties of radiation, that vary within the length of their waves. The shorter the radiation’s wavelength, the upper its energy. The longest waves are often several miles long, whereas the shortest area unit shorter than one atom.

Sunlight contains ultraviolet (UV) rays.

Goggles, sunglasses, and sun screen defend the eyes and skin from actinic ray rays, which may be harmful.

Gamma rays have the best energy of all. Observatories live gamma rays emitted by extremely popular stars and different bodies in area.

X-rays have enough energy to suffer several materials. They’re accustomed scan the contents of luggage at security checks.

Radio waves have the longest wavelength. Radio and television broadcasts and Wi-Fi use radio waves.

Microwaves area unit accustomed heat food. They’re conjointly employed by cell phones.



The technology of record players is all based on sound vibrations recorded physically into grooves of a vinyl disc. The delicate needle, or stylus, reads these vibrations and translates them into sound through the arm of the player.

Thomas Edison’s 1877 phonograph was the earliest example of this method of recording and reproducing sound. It was the first machine to use flat disc records, initially made of rubber, which could be rotated and played on the device using a hand crank.

Though records were subsequently made from shellac, then polyvinyl chloride, the basic principles remained. The turntable rotates the vinyl with either a belt drive or direct-drive system, reducing the noise of the motor.

The etchings of the vinyl form a gradual spiral in toward the centre, which the stylus follows as the record turns, picking up the thousands of miniscule bumps and translating them into good vibrations. So, the next time you put on a Kool and the Gang record, you’ll literally be hearing something groovy.



Launching a rocket takes years of planning, and the most important element is the launch pad and its attendant facilities. The launch pad cradles, fuels and powers the rocket, before it is unleashed. In the case of NASA’s Space Shuttle, its rocket motors produced 3.2 million kilograms (7 million pounds) of thrust at launch.

The corrosive exhaust and intense flames from the engines were channelled through a horizontal V-shaped flame trench, which consisted of two 453,600-kilogram (1 million-pound) deflectors made from steel coated with 12.7 centimetres (five inches) of heat-resistant Fondu Fyre concrete, which flakes off to disperse the intense heat.

The Space Shuttle was assembled on a moving launch platform (MLP) at the nearby vehicle assembly building (VAB) and taken to the launch pad on top of a crawler transporter. At the pad, a fixed service structure (FSS) has a lift to gain access to any level of the rocket. Anchored to it is the rotating service structure (RSS) that comprises a clean room used to load the rocket’s cargo.

It took at least a month for 170 technicians and specialists to prepare, check and launch the Space Shuttle, though for less complex, unmanned rockets the timescale is a matter of days. During the countdown, all links between the FSS and the rocket were systematically released, and lastly at blast-off explosive bolts free the shuttle from the MLP.

To protect the delicate components of the vehicle and the pad itself, the MLP is flooded with water at a rate of 3.4 million litres (900,000 gallons) per minute to suppress the damaging sound waves and heat produced by the engines.



Transmissions play a fundamental role in the process of moving a vehicle. A car’s transmission is connected to the engine and serves to transmit’ the power generated there to the wheels that drive it. Within this, gears reduce the number of revolutions of a crankshaft, ensuring more effective use of the engine’s torque.

When a car is in neutral power from the engine is driving the transmission input shaft, in turn rotating some parts in the transmission on idle. However, once first gear is selected to go forwards or reverse to go backwards, the clutch is depressed, disengaging the input shaft from the engine. Due to inertia, the input shaft could still spin for some time however, meaning certain parts of the transmission will be spinning too fast to interlock with the gears.

A clutch brake works by fixing to the input shaft on a manual gearbox, acting as a source of friction between the release bearing and transmission bearing retainer cap, reducing the input shaft’s rate of rotation and slowing the spinning inside the gearbox. This allows for the gears to ‘mesh’ effectively without any significant grinding or clashing. Clutch brakes are instrumental in avoiding excessive wear of those all-important inner transmission components.

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There are three common types of clutch brake found in vehicles: a one-piece clutch brake, a two-piece ‘hinged’ clutch brake and a torque. limiting clutch brake. The one-piece variety can only be installed with the transmission removed from the vehicle, so it can go over the circular input shaft. Its thick plate provides a good friction surface to slow the input shaft when it’s spinning. A two-piece hinged clutch brake on the other hand, can be installed with the transmission in place by hinging and then fixing around the input shaft. Finally, a torque-limiting clutch brake is used for more heavy-duty applications and features a hub with washers that slip under a certain amount of torque, ensuring the smooth engagement of gears in the transmission.



Eclipses are among the most spectacular astronomical events you can see. They occur when the Earth, Moon, and Sun all line up so that the Earth casts a shadow on the Moon or the Moon casts a shadow on the Earth. The Sun or Moon appear to go dark to people standing inside these shadows.


The Moon passes between the Sun and Earth every month at “new Moon,” but because its orbit is slightly tilted it usually does not pass directly in front of the Sun. Occasionally, however, it does move directly in front of the Sun and causes a solar eclipse. Although the Sun is 400 times wider than the Moon, by a curious coincidence it is also 400 times farther away. As a result, when viewed from Earth the Moon’s disk fits exactly over the Sun’s disk during a total solar eclipse.

Shadow play
A total solar eclipse can be seen only from the center of the Moon’s shadow—the umbra. The umbra sweeps across Earth during an eclipse, tracing a path thousands of miles long but no more than 60 miles (100 km) wide. Outside the umbra, the Moon casts a partial shadow causing a partial solar eclipse

Two or three times a year, the Moon passes through Earth’s enormous shadow and a lunar eclipse occurs. Surprisingly, the Moon does not become completely black. Some sunlight is refracted (bent) by Earth’s atmosphere and makes the Moon turn orange-red, like a red sunset. Lunar eclipses are easier and much safer to see than solar eclipses, since anybody with a view of the Moon can see them.

When day becomes night
A total solar eclipse occurs about every 18 months. If you are in the right place to see one, it is an amazing experience. As the last rays of sunlight are eclipsed, darkness falls, stars appear, and day turns to twilight. All that can be seen of the Sun is its hazy outer atmosphere.



For millennia, would-be aviators knew bird flight had something to do with wing structure. As it turns out, the shape of a wing is optimised to generate lift, an upward force caused by manipulating airflow. A wing has a rounded leading edge with a slight upward tilt, a curved topside, and a tapered trailing edge pointing downward. This shape alters the flow of air molecules into a downward trajectory. This results in – as Newton put it in his Third Law of Motion – “an equal and opposite reaction.” When the wing pushes the air molecules down, the molecules push the wing up with equal force. The airflow also creates a lower pressure area above the wing, which sucks the wing up.


Constructing wings is the easy part. To fly, you need to generate enough forward force – or thrust – to produce the necessary lift to counteract gravity. The Wright Brothers accomplished this by linking a piston engine to twin propellers. A plane propeller is simply a group of rotating wings shifted 90 degrees, so the direction of lift is forwards rather than upwards. In 1944, engineers upgraded to jet engines, which produce much greater thrust by igniting a mixture of air and fuel, and expelling hot gasses backward

A pilot controls a plane by adjusting movable surfaces on the main wings, as well as smaller surfaces and a wing-like rudder on the tail. By changing the shape and position of these structures, the pilot varies the lift force, acting on the different ends of the plane to essentially pivot the plane along three axes: its pitch (up or down tilt of the nose), roll (side to side rotation), and yaw (turn to the left or right).

Engineers keep planes as light and aerodynamic as possible. Modern fighter jets are manufactured from super-strong, lightweight composite material, applied in layers to form precise, aerodynamic shapes.


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