PENSER-RADIOLOGY is a branch of PENSER, in this you can study various radiology article and this is not only for radiographers or radiologists anyone who are interested in this subject are free to read.



Radiology is the medical branch that dealing with radiation to diagnose and treating disease.

Radiologist – radiologist is the doctor who are specialized to diagnose and treating disease with the help of radio- imaging technology.

Radiographer – radiographer are healthcare professionals who perform the procedure of medical imaging with the help of radio-imaging technology

Radio – imaging = making images of the internal body with the help of radiation.

Type of imaging machines

  • X ray
  • Ct scan
  • Mammography
  • Ultrasound
  • Mri
  • Dexa

Brief introduction

X ray

in this we use x rays for imaging, x rays are highly penetrating and ionizing radiation.

Use psp to record image and scanner to read it.


it is a real time image with the help of x ray. Procedure of this is also same as the x ray.

DARK ROOM – heart of the x ray

It is the area where x ray film is processed with the help of chemical.

Ct – scan

known as computed tomography or computed axial tomography. It uses rotating x ray machine and take different x ray image on different angle to produce virtual slice of body.

Mammography – is also called mammogram. This procedure is for Breast imaging with the help of low ionizing radiation to diagnose the breast cancer, tumor or lump.


also known as sonography which is used the high frequency sound waves to diagnose the disease. Basically it is non ionizing radiation which is used to less harmful than x ray and it is also used to diagnose complication of unborn babies.

US DOPPLER – it is used to estimate the blood flow in vessels.


also known as magnetic resonance imaging. which uses strong magnetic field to generate images of the internal body.


dual energy x ray absorptiometry, it is use to measure the bone density with the help of x ray imaging.


SPECT – single positron emission computed tomography is used the gamma camera 

PET – Positron emission tomography. It uses radioactive material, which act as tracer and PET machined scanned it and shows the activity within the body at cellular level.





Xrays were discovered by sir Wilhelm Conrad roentgen in 1895.

He was working on the behavior of cathode rays in his lab and after passing high voltage in the tube.

 he observed some faint light on bench and source of the light is barium platinocyanide [BaPt(CN)] which is coated by small piece of paper.

 He concluded that some unknown rays originated from tube. Then sir roentgen performed various type of experiments on cathode tube by placing some objects between tube and fluorescent screen and every time when he changed the objects, the brightness of light is different.

then finally he placed his wife(Anna Bertha Ludwig) hand between the screen and tube and He was surprised about the results.

On that day he recorded the first x ray of his wife’s hand. Later he prepared a manuscript on the properties of x rays and on 1901 he awarded by noble prize in physics.


X rays are a type of ionizing radiation and a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation.

X rays are short in wavelength and have high frequency.

  • Wavelength of the x rays – 10 picometers to 10 nanometers.
  • Frequency of the x rays – 3×1016Hz to 3×1019 Hz
  • energy – 124 eV to 124 Kev

IONIZATION – it is the process by which an atom or molecule acquires a charge by gaining or losing electron

EXCITATION – it is the process in which an electron jump from lower to higher energy level.


x rays are produced from the  x ray tube. It is formed by energy conversion, when a fast moving stream of electron is suddenly strike on target metal (anode) then energy converted into x rays.


  • X rays are invisible
  • It travel in straight line
  • It produce ionization and excitation in the substance through which they pass
  • X rays are electromagnetic waves and not deflected/influenced by electrical or magnetic field
  • X rays are heterogenic and polyenergetic.
  • It cause secondary and scattered radiation
  • It travels at speed of light 3 X 108 m/s
  • It cause biological effect (mutation, carcinoma, cataract)
  • It is pure energy, no charge, they are neutral
  • It is shows luminescence
  • X rays are used in clinical, industry, science etc