Article by – penserstudypoint

The asteroid belt is a large disc-shaped ring with large solid bodies such as asteroids (minor planets).

It divides the sequence of eight planets into two parts.

The four planets are before the asteroid belt towards the Sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars and the four planets are ahead of the asteroid belt are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Size of asteroid belt:-

The asteroid belt is about 150 million km thick and approximately 2.2 AU from the sun.
The estimated mass of the asteroid belt is 2.39 × 10²¹ kg while only mass of the Earth is larger than the mass of the entire asteroid belt and is about 5.9×10²⁴kg .

Materials in asteroid belt:-Most of the asteroid belt material was already lost during the early 100 million years of the solar system.

It mainly consists of three types of bodies in which the first type is C-type that are rich in carbon, the second type of bodies are S-type which is silicate rich body and the third type consists of M-type bodies which contain metals like iron and nickel.

The asteroid belt consists of about 1-1.7 million asteroids in a small area of 1 km or more in diameter and this data was traced by infrared wavelengths.

The asteroid belt has large bodies whose size is about 950 km and as short as dust particles.
There is also a dwarf planet named Ceres in the asteroid belt.
There are about 200 known asteroids have a diameter of more than a hundred kilometers in size.

Facts:-Meteroids entering the Earth’s atmosphere are also mostly from the asteroid belt. Meteroids are large bodies made up of ice and dust particles.

There is also a dwarf planet named Ceres in the asteroid belt


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Fire is a chemical reaction that occurs very quickly, and in the process, gives off heat and light.

Three things are necessary for this reaction to occur- fuel, oxygen, and heat.

Fuel whether it is paper or wood-by itself will not catch fire. It is only when the fuel is heated, and becomes hot enough, that the oxygen in the air combines freely with it to burst into flames.

The reason, fire is hot is because it releases a lot of energy that has been stored in fuel. For example, energy from sunlight is stored in the wood that is used as fuel.

When energy is released very quickly, heat and light are produced.

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Human skeleton is made up of 206 bones, here is a list of all bones which is present in human body.

Divided into two divisions.

Axial skeleton = 80 bones
Appendicular skeleton = 126 bones


Skull = 28 bones

Cranium 8
Face 14
Auditory Ossicles 6

Hyoid = 1 bone

Vertebral column 33

Cervical -7

Thoracic 12

Lumbar 5

Sacrum 5

Coccyx 4

Sternum 1
Ribs 24


Pectoral girdles
Clavicle 2
Scapula 2

Upper extremities 30

Humerus 2
Ulna 2
Radius 2
Carpals 16
Metacarpals 10
Phalanges 28
Pelvic girdles
Pelvic or hip bone 2

Lower extremities 30

Femur 2
Fibula 2
Tibia 2
Patella 2
Tarsals 14
Metatarsals 10
Phalanges 28



Today penser is going to launch new section and yes by the title you already know that is ebook section

so you can now download lots of books from penser without any hustle.

we can listed steps that how you can find this and also by the direct link which listed in the last :-


step 1 – search on google

step 2 – click on this e book section on menu bar

step 3 – now you are on our e-book section, so search your book and download it

if you still have any query you can send your query on email or by comments or on contact us page

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note – we only use and upload public domain books.

you can also find categories and list of books

this section is in its initial stage and we are adding books daily so we are very sorry if you are unable to find your books

Also please fill the support form it help us to know the genre which you likes the most and we’ll upload books accordingly and

Form is available on ebook page

all books are free of cost

direct link of the section – ebookpage


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HEALTHY FOOD – think before you eat




Hi! I am Aarushi from my baking and cooking blog, Little Chef’s Apron. I am 13 years old and I recently discovered my passion for baking. I do a lot of things, feasts, cakes, bakery style cupcakes, non veg recipes, cookies, Indian recipes, fusion recipes and all sorts of culinary ideas that come to my mind.

I would like to thank team Penser for this wonderful opportunity and today’s topic is the advantage of healthy foods and disadvantages of junk food.

All of us have heard the above line and often think that it is easy for the other person to advise. But, if we know what it actually means and how it really affects us, the doubt would never come in our mind.

Advantages of healthy food:

  • Healthy food can be helpful for your heart in the long term and gets you all the minerals that your body needs to lead a good life.
  • Now some people wonder that what does healthy exactly mean? It does not mean eating salad or fruits each time of the day. It means taking a balanced diet. It means to eat everything in a controlled manner with proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and enough water.
  • There is no need to go for vitamin capsules when they are naturally available. You can eat any fruit of your choice every day. During the lockdown, my family and I developed a habit of drinking orange/watermelon juice every day. We also drink homemade tomato soup in the evening.
  •  It is always good to intake homemade goods as you know that it is healthy since it is made with fresh ingredients at your home.
  • Eating healthy reduces the risk of diabetes as the sugar intake would be controlled. One trick is to eat whatever you want, whenever you want but it should be in a little quantity.

Disadvantages of junk food:

  • Junk food! It can lead to so many problems. Laziness being the first one. Whether you accept it or not, this is a natural fact. When eating junk, you feel lazy and demotivated to do anything.
  • Having too much of it in very less time can lead to obesity and an unwanted increase in your diet. When you know what your appetite is and how much food you require per meal, what is the need to increase it and take in extra calories?
  • It would unnecessarily increase your weight and other health problems. It can cause severe joint pain, increase in cholesterol and several heart diseases.
  • Situations like stress, depression, headaches and migraines can be lifelong tensions for you.
  • I know it is very hard to leave junk food but in the long run, it is the best option anyone has. In the starting days it might be difficult and you would feel hungry, but in a few days your stomach would also be trained in the same way.
  •  For example, when you were young, you used to eat little portion of rice. But as you grew older, you increased your diet. In the start your stomach must have felt really heavy, but later, you got used to it.
  • With the problems in the world like pollution, global warming, increase in temperature, unknown diseases coming up, if we are not healthy, imagine how much harm these would do to us. Why not be prepared in advance?

That is all for this post! Here is my blog link and do follow for more recipe notifications!

Little Chef’s Apron

I would love to hear your thoughts on this in the comments. Bye!


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Dark matter is the universe’s biggest mystery. Astronomers can tell that there is something invisible in the spaces between stars, since it’s creating enough of a gravitational pull to bend starlight as it travels toward Earth. However, no one knows what dark matter looks like or what it is made from.

Five percent of the visible universe of stars and planets is normal matter. However, this matter would not have enough gravitational pull to hold the galaxies together, so astronomers know that there must be another kind of matter, even if it’s invisible. Dark matter isn’t made of atoms and does not reflect light or any other kind of radiation, but it appears to make up a quarter of the matter in the universe.

This computer simulation shows how dark matter is spread throughout the universe. The yellow areas show the highest concentrations of dark matter. These regions have enough gravity to pull together visible matter, creating galaxies.

What’s the matter?
This image of a distant galaxy cluster shows a ring of dark matter around its center. The ring would not normally be visible, but we can tell where it is from the way that the gravity of dark matter bends the light of distant galaxies.

The Bullet Cluster
The Bullet Cluster was formed when two galaxy clusters collided, one tearing through the middle of the other like a bullet. The cluster’s normal matter (which appears pink here) has been slowed down in the collision by a drag force. However, the dark matter has continued to move outward without slowing, creating a light-bending aura.



If you judge people, you have no time to love them.

Mother Teresa



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Indiscriminate felling of trees as a results of urbanization, industrial enterprise, mining operations, and use of wood for domestic and alternative functions, have caused significant depletion of forests.

1) Shifting cultivation
*During this follow a patch of land is cleared, vegetation is burned and therefore the ash is mixed with the soil therefore adding nutrients to the soil.

*This patch of land is employed for raising crops for 2 to a few years, and therefore the yield is modest.

*Then this space is abandoned and is left to recover its fertility, and therefore the same follow is recurrent elsewhere on a recent piece of land.

*All that’s needed for this technique of cultivation may be a set of easy tools, not high level of mechanisation.

2) Development project
*The human population have hyperbolic significantly, thus with their necessities.

*Development comes just like the electricity comes, massive dams and reservoirs, birth down of railway lines and roads aren’t solely extraordinarily helpful, however they’re conjointly coupled with many environmental issues.

*Several of those comes need Brobdingnagian deforestation.

3) Fuel necessities
*The increasing demand for fuel with ever growing population will increase larger pressure on the forests, which ends up in hyperbolic intensity of deforestation.

4) Stuff necessities
*Wood is employed as a stuff by numerous industries for creating paper, plywood, furniture, match sticks, boxes, crates, packing cases, etc.

*Industries conjointly get their raw materials from plants like medication, scents and perfumes, resin, gums, waxes, turpentine, latex and rubber, tannis, alkaloids, bees wax.

*This exerted tremendous pressure on forest system and their unrestricted exploitation for numerous alternative raw materials is that the main reason for degradation of the forest system.

5) Alternative Causes
*Deforestation conjointly results from overgrazing, agricul ture, mining, urbanization, flood, fire, pest, diseases, defence and communication activites.

How it affects?
*Closed forests (based on cover level) have being di minished because of deforestation resulting in increase in degraded forests.

*Forests recycle wetness from soil into their immediate atmosphere by transpiration wherever it once more precipitates as rain.

*Deforestation leads to an instantaneous lowering of spring water level and in long reduction of precipitation.


*Because of deforestation, this natural recycle cycle is broken and water is lost through speedy flee.

*A lot of of the mining activity in Republic of India is being disbursed in forest regions. the apparent result’s deforestation and eating away.

*Underground mining has conjointly considerably uncovered forests, as timber is employed for supporting the roofs of mine galleries.

*An oversized range of abandoned mines square measure lying in unhealthy form and square measure below in depth valley erosion resulting in degradation of the environment.



“The small wisdom is like water in a glass:
clear, transparent, pure.
The great wisdom is like the water in the sea:
dark, mysterious, impenetrable.”
― Rabindranath Tagore – buy these books