Volcano is an eruption in the crust of large mass objects like planets.

When hot Lava gases dust and ashes escape out of surfaces (like earth’s surface) called volcanic eruption.

When tectonic plates diverges or converges, the chance of finding a volcano at that place are very high.

Mostly gases that are present in volcanoes are CO2 and Sulphur.

when Magma escape out from the surface called Lava.

There are different type of volcanoes such that Cinder cones volcanoes, Composite volcanoes, Shield volcanoes and lava domes volcanoes.

There are approximately 1500 active volcanoes on earth where Kilaula volcano is most active.

Mauna loa is the largest volcano on earth with a height of more than 9 kilometres and Cuexcomate is the smallest volcano only 13 meters tall.

Krakatao volcano erupt in 1883 and cause loudest sound which can be heard from 3000 miles away.

The danger area that a volcano cover is about 20 miles in radius.
Volcano can cause floods tsunamis and earthquakes.

The deadliest volcano eruption was occurred in Indonesia that cause thousand of lives lost.


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Ecosystem is a group that have living organism and all the lives interact with each other in any way in any specific environment.

Concept of ecosystem:-

The concept of ecosystem was firstly used by British ecologist Arthur Tansley.

Types of ecosystem:- Ecosystem have two types
1:-Terrestrial ecosystem
2:-Aquatic ecosystem

Terrestrial is land based ecosystem while Aquatic ecosystem is water based.

Structure of ecosystem:-

There are two types of structures of ecosystem

1:- Biotic ecosystem

2:- Abiotic ecosystem

Biotic ecosystem contain living organism while Abiotic ecosystem contain non living things like air, water.

Producers in ecosystem:-

Producers are like plants that use photosynthesis by using sunlight, water, air and than convert these energies into complex energies like proteins, starch.

Consumers in ecosystem:-

Consumers are those who can eat primary producers of their life. Herbivores are called primary consumers while carnivores are called secondary consumers.

Decomposers in ecosystem:-

Decomposers decompose the organic materials. They decompose dead bodies of animals, dead plants, etc. Decomposers have very high importance in ecosystem.

Energy flow in ecosystem:-

This is one directional energy flow. This energy passes from one trophic level to the next trophic level.

Food chain:-

the chain start from producers and ending with decomposers.
For example- Goat eat grass and lion eats goat and when lion dies it will be eaten by micro organism that are decomposers.

Food web

network of food chain is known as food web,

natural interconnection of food chains.

Ecological pyramid:-

It is a graphical representation that show the order that based on who eats whom, different trophic levels and represent flow of energy



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Meteor shower also called shooting star.

An event in which moving in meteors spotted in night sky.

when meteroids entering in Earth’s atmosphere with a very high speed, they burns because of air friction in atmosphere of earth.

That’s why meteors are visible from earth.

Meteors have different sizes.
Most of them are smaller than sand’s grain.

Mostly all of the meteors can never reach to earth surface.
Sometimes the rate of the meteor shower is very high approximately 1000 meteors per hour.

Meteors are travelling in parallel path with almost same velocity.

Meteor shower cause by interaction of comet and planets.
Comet are are made up by dirt and ice. Due to sun’s heat, comet breaked up and the result is Meteor shower.


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