WHY FIRE IS TOO HOT ?

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Fire is a chemical reaction that occurs very quickly, and in the process, gives off heat and light.

Three things are necessary for this reaction to occur- fuel, oxygen, and heat.

Fuel whether it is paper or wood-by itself will not catch fire. It is only when the fuel is heated, and becomes hot enough, that the oxygen in the air combines freely with it to burst into flames.

The reason, fire is hot is because it releases a lot of energy that has been stored in fuel. For example, energy from sunlight is stored in the wood that is used as fuel.

When energy is released very quickly, heat and light are produced.


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WHY THE LION DOES NOT HAVE STRIPES?

Lion is also known as the king of jungle and it is very powerful wild animals.

Scientific name of lion is panthera leo and it is belong to family “felidae”

Have you ever noticed that tigers have striped on their skin but lion don’t have.



Many animals that belong to the cat family have stripes or some spots or patterns on their skins.



They also occur on tiger and leopard.



You can heard roar of the lion approx 8 km and also it can reach speeds of up 80 kph. But apart that lion don’t have stripes on their skin.

This is because these animals hunt in the jungle and mostly at night, and these strips prove beneficial in hunting them.

These spots are also more beneficial for hiding them.

Lion hunts mostly in open places, its fur is not so visible in grass. So it is easy to hunt.

Lions always live in the herd and for this reason they are not detected from a distance.

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GALAXY

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Galaxy, that have billions of stars and billions billions planets.
All these stars and planets held together by gravity and all are rotating even a galaxy can rotate.

Milky way galaxy:- We are living in Milky Way galaxy. All the stars that are visible in the sky are in milky way and our sun is a part of these stars.

There are billions of galaxies in the universe. Every Galaxy have different shape and size.
The shape of galaxies are like Spiral galaxy, elliptical galaxy, irregular galaxy.

Aur Galaxy, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy.

Visible galaxies from earth:- Through billion of galaxies, only three galaxies can be seen from earth. One of them is andromeda galaxy, which is 2.2 million light year away and it is the nearest galaxy to us.

According to scientists, clumps of dust and gases joined together to form stars planets and then a galaxy. That’s why most of the stars and planets are made of gases.

The Milky Way is a huge Whirlpool shape galaxy have billions of stars, dust and gases. Even light can take 100000 years to cross it from one end to another.

Some scientists thinks that there is a super massive black hole in the centre of our galaxy and the revolutions of that black hole are not so fast. That’s why milky way is stable.

Our solar system that have Sun, planets, etc. is only a tiny part of Milky Way galaxy and the milky way is a tiny part of the universe.

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FEATURES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

Features of Indian Constitution – by priya prakash

The constitution is the supreme law of India.

Every country has its own constitution. Some are written and some are oral. But what makes
India’s constitution so different ?

There are many salient features which make Indian constitution distinguished from the constitution of other countries.

Some of the important features of Indian constitution are as follows:

Written Constitution:

• It is the broad and langthiest written constitution of the world because of the vast geography and diversity of India.

• It contains principles of governance and detailed administrative provisions.

• Originally, it contained a Preamble, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules (At present, 465 articles and 12 schedules). That are divided into 22 parts. At present, there is 25 parts.

• Indian Constitution has borrowed provisions from almost every constitution of the world.

• Dr B.R.Ambedkar had proudly claimed that “The Constitution of India has been framed by ransacking all the known Constitutions of the World”.

• But the framers had made moderations in the provisions in order to suit Indian conditions.

Rigid and Flexible:

• The laws in Indian constitution can be amended from time to time.

• According to Article 368, some provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament as change in fundamental rights and some provisions can be amended by special majority of Parliament and also ratification by half of the total states legistature as change in method of election of president, while some can be amended by a simple majority of Parliament.

Unitary & Federal system:

• It contains federal features like bicameralism, independent judiciary, two governments, written constitution, etc.

• It contains unitary features like single citizenship, single constitution, flexible constitution, integrated judiciary, etc.

• Even though it has features of both, “federation” word is no where used in
constitution.

• In the constitution, India has been described as the “Union of states”.

Parliamentry form of government:

• According to constitution, Prime Minister plays the most crucial and vital role.

India’s parliamentary form of government is at both levels, state and central.

• Both nominated and elected executives are present in Parliament.

• It was introduced in constitution so that citizens will be united irrespective of their diversities.

Single Citizenship:

• According to this, all citizens enjoy the same rights of citizenship all over the country.

Even though over the years, the constitution of India has been altered, but the basic structure still remains the same. (There is also dual citizenship only for business point of view for all the countries accept Pakistan and Bangladesh

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BREATHING and its importance?

In this article we’ll discuss the process of breathing and why it is so important for us.

To understand the cycle and concept of breathing, we should look at the definition of breathing firstly.

Breathing supplies oxygen to the lungs and eliminates carbon dioxide

We breathe air to survive, which contains oxygen, which is necessary for life

Air is enter and exit from lungs through the nose.

Firstly air is taken in through the nostrils. This is the first step of breathing

Inhaled air takes moisture from mucus and warmed from underlying blood vessels , and filtered from nose hair.

After moistened, warmed and filtered air travels through the mouth and nasal passages.

It then passes through the trachea, and trachea is the connection between the throat and the lungs.

Trachea is divided into two bronchi, air is passes through one of them.

After passing into the many bronchioles, it finally arrives into some of the millions of tiny sacs called alveoli.

This is where gas exchange takes place – oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli.

Below the lungs, there is a flat powerful muscle called diaphragm.

The diaphragm contracts and relaxes, and as it does so, the volume of the chest increases and decreases to suck air into the lungs and then force it out.

To be continue……

ARRHYTHMIA

Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart that affects the heart rate . An arrhythmia represent an irregular heartbeat. With this condition, a person’s heart can beat ———-

• too fast (tachycardia)
• too slow (bradycardia)
• too early (premature contraction)
• too erratically (fibrillation

Arrhythmias occur when the electrical impulse that regulate heartbeats are not working properly.

An irregular heartbeat can feel as a racing heart or fluttering.
Brain, lungs and other vital organs can be affected by the Arrhythmias.

Symptoms

• difficulty breathing
• chest pain
• Sweating
• dizziness or lightheadedness
• fainting, or almost fainting
• fatigue

Types

• Atrial fibrillation
• Atrial flutter
• Supraventricular tachycardia
• Ventricular tachycardia
• Ventricular fibrillation

Cause

• High blood pressure
• Hyperthyroidism
• Smoking
• Stress
• Alcohol abuse
• Diabetes
• Exercise
• Drinking too much coffee
• Heart disease, such as congestive

heart failure

• Some medications
• Structural changes in the heart

Treatment

• Antiarrhythmic drugs
• Surgery

Complications

• Cardiac arrest
• Heart failure
• Dementia
• Stroke

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PYELONEPHRITIS

Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection. It causes one and both kidneys are swell .

Pyelonephritis can be life-threatening. It can be infected by bacteria or virus.

The main function of kidney remove waste and take extra water from blood.

Kidney is a part of urinary system, which makes liquid waste (Urine) and remove it from your body.
Kidney filter the blood and make urine.

Ureters carry urine from kidney or through the bladder.
Bladder hold the urine before the micturition.

Urethra carries urine from your bladder to outside your body.
Bacteria entered through urethra begin the multiplying and spread up to the bladder and travel by ureter and they reach kidney or infected the kidney.

Symptoms

Symptoms are showing aproximetly within two days of infection.
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Vomiting
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Fishy smelling urine
• Frequent urination
• Pus and blood in the urine
• Burning and painful urination

Infection complication

• Kidney damage
• Severe infection
• Septicaemia
• Problem in pregnancy

Cause

E. Coli a most common bacteria which is responsible for this. And other bacteria and virus can cause urinary infection.
This is rare that the bacteria enter skin and travel in the blood and reach the kidney.

TUMOR

A Deadly tumor is called brain cancer. they grows sharply and often strike or mob healthy areas of the brain.

Tumour is either be benign and malignant.

Malignant is cancerous

Benign brain tumors have not consist cancer cells and are usually slow growing.

Brain tumors are two different types. primary or metastatic.

Primary brain tumors start within the brain.

A metastatic tumor is made when cancer cells situated elsewhere in the body break down away and travel to the brain.

For this reason, metastatic brain tumors are nearly every time malignant, while primary brain tumors may be benign or deadly.

Brain tumors are arranged in classes or categories based on where the tumor is situated , the type of tissue involved .

the tumor is benign or deadly , and other factors. If a tumor is laid down malignant.

The tumor cell is examined by a microscope to determine how malignant they are.

Based on this analysis, tumors are rated, or graded, where level of malignancy from least to most malignant.

Factors that determine the tumor grade include how quickly the cells are growing, how much blood is supplying the cells, the presence of dead cells in the middle of the tumor (necrosis), if the cells are finit to a specific area, and how similar the cancerous cells are not normal cells.

Symptoms


• Blurred vision
• Headache
• Loss of balance
• Seizures
• Tingling and stiffness

Types

* Pineal tumor
• Astrocytomas
• Acoustic neuroma
• Choroid plexus papilloma
• Vascular tumors
• Chordomas
• Ependymomas
• Craniopharyngiomas
• Schwannomass
• Ganglioneuromas
• Meningiomas
• Glioblastoma multiforme
• Gliomas
• Oligodendroglioma
• Pituitary adenomas
• Primitive neuroectodermal

Treatment

Brain tumor are remove by surgery and other way like radiation therapy and chemotherapy, target therapy.

to be continue…

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Understanding the concept of LIGHT SOUND

SOUND

Anything we hear around us is not is sound but vibration of particles. Vibration is a type of disturbance which propagates by particles of medium.

Sound is not travel but it is a wave that is transferred by particles in the form of vibrations (particles can only transfer the vibrations by one particle to second and 2nd to 3rd and so on by remain their positions).

Without particles, sound has no existence. Sound not travel in space because there are no particles in space. , so we transfer the information in form of signal in space.

Speed of sound in different mediums

Air – 343m/sec

Water – 1437m/sec

Glass – 4540m/sec

Iron – 5120m/sec

According to this, as the medium density increases sound speed also increases.

Effect of temperature- As temperature increases speed of sound increases.

The normal range of sound to hear anything for human is 20hz to 20000hz.

But minimum range of sound which a human can hear is 12hz and maximum is 28000hz.

The sound created by a volcano eruption in 1883 is in range of 180decibel and it can be heard up to 3000 miles (ca. 4,828 km).

the sound created by the explosion of nuclear bomb is in range of 240 to 280+ decibels.

So, we cannot imagine what will be the loudest sound.

LIGHT

Light energy is a traveling Photon which is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Photon is a bundle of energy. 

Speed of light is 3 × 10⁸m/sec. in vacuum. 

As dense as the medium the speed of light will decrease.

Nature of light-

Light has dual nature

1- wave nature- we consider the light have wave nature because light has the property of diffraction, refraction, and interference etc.

2-particle nature- light has particle nature because it emits electrons when it strikes on metal surface called Photoelectric effect.

mass of photon is zero.

Formation of light energy -when we provide heat to an object it is start to emit photons.

The number of emitting photons, depending on temperature of the object. 

Photon having a special property that they can never exist in stable form. They start to travel since their formation.

Intensity of light inversely proportional to square of source distance.

7 properties of light – 

reflection, diffraction ,refraction ,polarization, interference ,dispersion, scattering.

Visible light is made up of seven colors known as VIBGYOR.

V – Violet 

I – Indigo

B – blue

G – green 

Y – yellow 

O – orange 

R – red

Where red light has the longest wavelength while violet light has the shortest wavelength.

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DO THINGS HAVE COLOUR ? How can we see colours

Anything we see around us that have colours are not actually colours but photons travels with different frequencies and our eyes detect that frequencies in form of colours.

How photons travels with different frequencies-

Electrons are revolve around the nucleus in different shells in an atom.

Every particular electron revolve in an particular shell. When photon collide with electrons, the electron absorb the energy of photon.

By absorbing the photon energy, the electron goes to the next energy shell for a short time of period (10^-8 sec)
The electron goes to the next energy shell called excited state.

After 10^-8 sec in excited state, the electron come back to it’s original energy shell called ground state.
When electron come back to ground state, it release the energy of photon which is absorbed by it. It release photon in a particular frequency range. And the whole process is continuous.

The released photon strike on our eyes. The light receptors in eyes can transmit the message to brain and brain can detect the this in form of colour and make an image of that object so that we can see an object which has colour.

There are more than 10 million colour detected.

Black and white are not colour because black is form when all the light Ray’s or all the photons can be absorbed and white is formed when all the light Ray’s are reflected from the surface.

Anything which is transparent can pass all the light Ray’s through it and would be invisible if 100% light rays can pass through it which strike on it.
The range of visible light is 380 – 700nanometer(nm).
And all the colours we can see have in the range of visible light.

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