Post by penserstudypoint.com

Fire is a chemical reaction that occurs very quickly, and in the process, gives off heat and light.

Three things are necessary for this reaction to occur- fuel, oxygen, and heat.

Fuel whether it is paper or wood-by itself will not catch fire. It is only when the fuel is heated, and becomes hot enough, that the oxygen in the air combines freely with it to burst into flames.

The reason, fire is hot is because it releases a lot of energy that has been stored in fuel. For example, energy from sunlight is stored in the wood that is used as fuel.

When energy is released very quickly, heat and light are produced.

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Human skeleton is made up of 206 bones, here is a list of all bones which is present in human body.

Divided into two divisions.

Axial skeleton = 80 bones
Appendicular skeleton = 126 bones


Skull = 28 bones

Cranium 8
Face 14
Auditory Ossicles 6

Hyoid = 1 bone

Vertebral column 33

Cervical -7

Thoracic 12

Lumbar 5

Sacrum 5

Coccyx 4

Sternum 1
Ribs 24


Pectoral girdles
Clavicle 2
Scapula 2

Upper extremities 30

Humerus 2
Ulna 2
Radius 2
Carpals 16
Metacarpals 10
Phalanges 28
Pelvic girdles
Pelvic or hip bone 2

Lower extremities 30

Femur 2
Fibula 2
Tibia 2
Patella 2
Tarsals 14
Metatarsals 10
Phalanges 28



Dark matter is the universe’s biggest mystery. Astronomers can tell that there is something invisible in the spaces between stars, since it’s creating enough of a gravitational pull to bend starlight as it travels toward Earth. However, no one knows what dark matter looks like or what it is made from.

Five percent of the visible universe of stars and planets is normal matter. However, this matter would not have enough gravitational pull to hold the galaxies together, so astronomers know that there must be another kind of matter, even if it’s invisible. Dark matter isn’t made of atoms and does not reflect light or any other kind of radiation, but it appears to make up a quarter of the matter in the universe.

This computer simulation shows how dark matter is spread throughout the universe. The yellow areas show the highest concentrations of dark matter. These regions have enough gravity to pull together visible matter, creating galaxies.

What’s the matter?
This image of a distant galaxy cluster shows a ring of dark matter around its center. The ring would not normally be visible, but we can tell where it is from the way that the gravity of dark matter bends the light of distant galaxies.

The Bullet Cluster
The Bullet Cluster was formed when two galaxy clusters collided, one tearing through the middle of the other like a bullet. The cluster’s normal matter (which appears pink here) has been slowed down in the collision by a drag force. However, the dark matter has continued to move outward without slowing, creating a light-bending aura.



Post by – penserstudypoint.com

Galaxy, that have billions of stars and billions billions planets.
All these stars and planets held together by gravity and all are rotating even a galaxy can rotate.

Milky way galaxy:- We are living in Milky Way galaxy. All the stars that are visible in the sky are in milky way and our sun is a part of these stars.

There are billions of galaxies in the universe. Every Galaxy have different shape and size.
The shape of galaxies are like Spiral galaxy, elliptical galaxy, irregular galaxy.

Aur Galaxy, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy.

Visible galaxies from earth:- Through billion of galaxies, only three galaxies can be seen from earth. One of them is andromeda galaxy, which is 2.2 million light year away and it is the nearest galaxy to us.

According to scientists, clumps of dust and gases joined together to form stars planets and then a galaxy. That’s why most of the stars and planets are made of gases.

The Milky Way is a huge Whirlpool shape galaxy have billions of stars, dust and gases. Even light can take 100000 years to cross it from one end to another.

Some scientists thinks that there is a super massive black hole in the centre of our galaxy and the revolutions of that black hole are not so fast. That’s why milky way is stable.

Our solar system that have Sun, planets, etc. is only a tiny part of Milky Way galaxy and the milky way is a tiny part of the universe.

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Radiology is the medical branch that dealing with radiation to diagnose and treating disease.

Radiologist – radiologist is the doctor who are specialized to diagnose and treating disease with the help of radio- imaging technology.

Radiographer – radiographer are healthcare professionals who perform the procedure of medical imaging with the help of radio-imaging technology

Radio – imaging = making images of the internal body with the help of radiation.

Type of imaging machines

  • X ray
  • Ct scan
  • Mammography
  • Ultrasound
  • Mri
  • Dexa

Brief introduction

X ray

in this we use x rays for imaging, x rays are highly penetrating and ionizing radiation.

Use psp, xray film and digital receptor to record image and scanner to read it.


it is a real time image with the help of x ray. Procedure of this is also same as the x ray.

DARK ROOM – heart of the x ray

It is the area where x ray film is processed with the help of chemical.

Ct – scan

known as computed tomography or computed axial tomography. It uses rotating x ray machine and take different x ray image on different angle to produce virtual slice of body.

Mammography – is also called mammogram. This procedure is for Breast imaging with the help of low ionizing radiation to diagnose the breast cancer, tumor or lump.


also known as sonography which is used the high frequency sound waves to diagnose the disease. Basically it is non ionizing radiation which is used to less harmful than x ray and it is also used to diagnose complication of unborn babies.

US DOPPLER – it is used to estimate the blood flow in vessels.


also known as magnetic resonance imaging. which uses strong magnetic field to generate images of the internal body.


dual energy x ray absorptiometry, it is use to measure the bone density with the help of x ray imaging.


SPECT – single positron emission computed tomography is used the gamma camera 

PET – Positron emission tomography. It uses radioactive material, which act as tracer and PET machined scanned it and shows the activity within the body at cellular level.




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Ecosystem is a group that have living organism and all the lives interact with each other in any way in any specific environment.

Concept of ecosystem:-

The concept of ecosystem was firstly used by British ecologist Arthur Tansley.

Types of ecosystem:- Ecosystem have two types
1:-Terrestrial ecosystem
2:-Aquatic ecosystem

Terrestrial is land based ecosystem while Aquatic ecosystem is water based.

Structure of ecosystem:-

There are two types of structures of ecosystem

1:- Biotic ecosystem

2:- Abiotic ecosystem

Biotic ecosystem contain living organism while Abiotic ecosystem contain non living things like air, water.

Producers in ecosystem:-

Producers are like plants that use photosynthesis by using sunlight, water, air and than convert these energies into complex energies like proteins, starch.

Consumers in ecosystem:-

Consumers are those who can eat primary producers of their life. Herbivores are called primary consumers while carnivores are called secondary consumers.

Decomposers in ecosystem:-

Decomposers decompose the organic materials. They decompose dead bodies of animals, dead plants, etc. Decomposers have very high importance in ecosystem.

Energy flow in ecosystem:-

This is one directional energy flow. This energy passes from one trophic level to the next trophic level.

Food chain:-

the chain start from producers and ending with decomposers.
For example- Goat eat grass and lion eats goat and when lion dies it will be eaten by micro organism that are decomposers.

Food web

network of food chain is known as food web,

natural interconnection of food chains.

Ecological pyramid:-

It is a graphical representation that show the order that based on who eats whom, different trophic levels and represent flow of energy



Article by AMBER

Hello all, my name is Amber, my blog is: http://diosraw.com and I have a post for you today focusing on a brief discussion of mala beads.

A mala is, put simply, a string of beads that are used in a meditation practice.

It is used as a tool to help count during mantras, and acts as a tactile guide as you sit in silence.

Malas can be made of many different materials, for example some are made using rudraksha seeds and sandalwood. 

What Is The Tassel?

The mala tassel has multiple meanings.

A common meaning is that as the strings come together as one to form the tassel, it represents our connection to the divine and to each other.

I personally love the concept of it representing oneness.

The Guru Bead

The Guru Bead is the bead that the tassel attaches directly to. When the tassel is strung on a necklace, the Guru Bead is often the 109th bead.

The Guru Bead is said to symbolize the Guru from who the student has received a mantra being used or recited, and pay homage to the student-guru connection.

Overhand Knotting

Overhand knotting not only makes the mala stronger, it is a true sign of a traditionally crafted mala, it also provides the perfect opportunity for Japa Meditation – a meditation that uses each bead to count a repetition of a mantra.

History of Mala

Mala beads have been used by yogis, monks and spiritual seekers for thousands of years to aid their minds in focusing during meditation.

Malas are known to have first been created in India 3000 years ago with roots in Hinduism and Buddhism; they were, and are still, used for a specific style of meditation called Japa, which means, “to recite”. The name ‘mala’ is a Sanskrit word for “meditation garland.”

This post is written by AMBER

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Here is the link of her blog – http://diosraw.com

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Features of Indian Constitution – by priya prakash

The constitution is the supreme law of India.

Every country has its own constitution. Some are written and some are oral. But what makes
India’s constitution so different ?

There are many salient features which make Indian constitution distinguished from the constitution of other countries.

Some of the important features of Indian constitution are as follows:

Written Constitution:

• It is the broad and langthiest written constitution of the world because of the vast geography and diversity of India.

• It contains principles of governance and detailed administrative provisions.

• Originally, it contained a Preamble, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules (At present, 465 articles and 12 schedules). That are divided into 22 parts. At present, there is 25 parts.

• Indian Constitution has borrowed provisions from almost every constitution of the world.

• Dr B.R.Ambedkar had proudly claimed that “The Constitution of India has been framed by ransacking all the known Constitutions of the World”.

• But the framers had made moderations in the provisions in order to suit Indian conditions.

Rigid and Flexible:

• The laws in Indian constitution can be amended from time to time.

• According to Article 368, some provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament as change in fundamental rights and some provisions can be amended by special majority of Parliament and also ratification by half of the total states legistature as change in method of election of president, while some can be amended by a simple majority of Parliament.

Unitary & Federal system:

• It contains federal features like bicameralism, independent judiciary, two governments, written constitution, etc.

• It contains unitary features like single citizenship, single constitution, flexible constitution, integrated judiciary, etc.

• Even though it has features of both, “federation” word is no where used in

• In the constitution, India has been described as the “Union of states”.

Parliamentry form of government:

• According to constitution, Prime Minister plays the most crucial and vital role.

India’s parliamentary form of government is at both levels, state and central.

• Both nominated and elected executives are present in Parliament.

• It was introduced in constitution so that citizens will be united irrespective of their diversities.

Single Citizenship:

• According to this, all citizens enjoy the same rights of citizenship all over the country.

Even though over the years, the constitution of India has been altered, but the basic structure still remains the same. (There is also dual citizenship only for business point of view for all the countries accept Pakistan and Bangladesh

This post is written by priya prakash

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Why are bones important?

Every one of us has a skeleton made up of many bones. We have 206 bones in our body.

Each bone has a function. Some bones offer protection to softer, more fragile parts of the body.

For example, the skull protects the brain, and two bony sockets in front of the skull protect the eyes.

The ribcage protects our heart and lungs, while the spinal column protects the delicate spinal cord.

Other bones, like the bones in our legs and arms, help us to move around by providing support for our muscles.

Bones store calcium while the bone marrow produces red and white blood cells.

Remember, if your body does not get enough calcium, it will take it from your bones making your bones weaker. So, drink your milk to build strong bones!

Thank you

BREATHING and its importance?

In this article we’ll discuss the process of breathing and why it is so important for us.

To understand the cycle and concept of breathing, we should look at the definition of breathing firstly.

Breathing supplies oxygen to the lungs and eliminates carbon dioxide

We breathe air to survive, which contains oxygen, which is necessary for life

Air is enter and exit from lungs through the nose.

Firstly air is taken in through the nostrils. This is the first step of breathing

Inhaled air takes moisture from mucus and warmed from underlying blood vessels , and filtered from nose hair.

After moistened, warmed and filtered air travels through the mouth and nasal passages.

It then passes through the trachea, and trachea is the connection between the throat and the lungs.

Trachea is divided into two bronchi, air is passes through one of them.

After passing into the many bronchioles, it finally arrives into some of the millions of tiny sacs called alveoli.

This is where gas exchange takes place – oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli.

Below the lungs, there is a flat powerful muscle called diaphragm.

The diaphragm contracts and relaxes, and as it does so, the volume of the chest increases and decreases to suck air into the lungs and then force it out.

To be continue……